List of the nomenclature or phrases written

in footnotes in the text

 Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani (or Ghijduvani): (died in 1220) He was one of a group of Central Asian Sufi teachers known simply as Khawajagan (the Masters) of the Naqshbandi order. Hadhrat Abdul Khaliq was born in the small town of Ghijduvan, near Bukhara. His father had migrated to Central Asia from Malatya, in eastern Anatolia where he had been a prominent faqih(an expert in in fiqh or Islamicjurisprudence or Islamic Law / Jurist). While Hadhrat Abdul Khaliq was studying tafsir(exegesis or commentary of the Quran) in Bukhara he first had an awakening of interest in the path. He received further training at the hands of Yusuf Hamdani, and was the next link in the Naqshbandi silsila (chain of sheiks) following him. Hadhrat Abdul Khaliq bequeathed to subsequent generations of the Naqshbandi silsila a series of principles governing their Sufi practice, concisely formulated in Persian and known collectively as "the Sacred Words" (kalimat-i qudsiya), or the "Rules" or "Secrets" of the Naqshbandi Order.  

Ab-ı Hayat: Literally means water of life; life-water; ever-lasting life giving water; elixir; the water giving either an eternal life or a life lasting until the end of the world. But in tariqa, it means the suhbas of a sheikh which liven, cure (treat) or awaken the spirits of the disciples which are considered as dead, sick or sleeping (heedless).

Adab: Spiritual courtesy or manners, decency, modesty, politeness, decorum, propriety, courtesy, seemliness, proper behaviors, integrity.

Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the family of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), the Prophet of Islam. Muslims respect Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) household as they are given a special significance in the Quran (the Muslim Holy Scripture) and the hadith (reports recording the words and actions of Hadhrat Muhammad SAW). There are different interpretations over the scope and importance of Ahl al-Bayt. In Sunni Islam, Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) household includes his wives, his daughter (Fatimah), her children, as well as his cousin and son-in-law, Ali. Other interpretations include Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) blood relatives, such as the Banu Hashim or the Banu Muttalib. In Sunni thought, every Muslim has the obligation to love the Ahl al-Bayt. In Twelver and IsmailiShi'a Islam, the Ahl al-Bayt are central to Islam and are believed to be the true successors of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). The Shi'a definition of the phrase includes only Fatimah, Ali, Hasan and Husayn (known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa, “people of the mantle”) and the Imams, descendants of Fatimah who they consider to be divinely chosen leaders of the Muslim community. Sufis include Salman, the Persian (Salman al-Farisi) in to Ahl al-Bayt. 

Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘ah (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة): Sunni Islam is the largestdenomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as “Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l- Jamā‘ah = People of the example of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and the community” or “Ahl as-Sunnah” for short. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunna (Arabic: سنة ), which means the words and actions or example of the Islamic prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW).  

Al-Insan al-Kâmil(in Turkish Kâmil İnsan): Perfect man is the one who became the mirror of the attributes (noble character traits) of Allah after clensing himself of the imperfect (defective) human and animal attributes (character traits) by annihilating himself (his imaginal and false entity or being) and by reaching the Entity (Being; Body) of Allah under the spiritual education of a murshid. In Islamic theology, al-Insān al-Kāmil (الإنسان الكامل, also rendered as Kâmil İnsan انسانِكامل - in Turkish), is a term used primarily as an honorific title to describe Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and the awliya who are accepted as his spiritual substitutes (deputies). It is an Arabic phrase meaning the “perfect man” or “perfect human being”. It is an important concept in Islamic theology. The Sufis regard Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) as the Perfect Man and Perfect Wali (Saint). The concept of al-Insān al-Kāmil also has some relation to Hadhrat Adam (AS).

Al-Kalaam al-Kebaar: “Kalaam” means “word” and “Kebaar” means the Greats”. The phrase “Al-Kalaam al-Kebaar” means “the word(s) of the Exalted Greats of the Tariqa

Al-Khidr (Arabic: الخضر "the Green One", also transcribed Khidr, Khidar, Khizr, Khizar and Persian: خضر, Turkish: Hızır) has a disputed status in Islam; some say he is a saint (friend of Allah) while others say he is a prophet. Al-Khidr is best known for his appearance in the Quran in suraal-Kahf (Quran 18:65). Although not mentioned by name in the âyah (verse), al-Khidr is assumed to be the figure that Hadhrat Musa (AS) (Moses) accompanies and whose seemingly violent and destructive actions disturb Moses so much that he violates his oath not to ask questions.

Allah: Allah is the proper name of God or the standard Arabic word for God. While the term is best known in the West for its use by Muslims as a reference to God, it is used by Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, in reference to "God". Arab Christians today, having no other word for 'God' than Allah, use terms such as Allah al-'Ab meaning God the father, Allah al-ibn meaning God the son, and Allah al-ruh al qudus meaning God the Holy Spirit. The term “Allah” was also used by paganMeccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity in pre-Islamic Arabia. The term Allah is derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article al (the) and ilah (God, Deity) to al-lah meaning "the (sole) Deity, God" (ho theos monos). The concepts associated with the term Allah (as a deity) differ among the traditions. In pre-Islamic Arabia amongst pagan Arabs, Allah was not the sole divinity, having associates and companions, sons and daughters (whom pre-Islamic Arabs considered as subordinate deities), a concept strongly opposed by Islam. For instance, the local deities of al-‘Uzzâ, Manât and al-Lât were His daughters. Allah was used by Meccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity. Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) father's name was Abdallah meaning the “servant of Allah.” or "the slave of Allah". In Islam, the name Allah is the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. All other divine names are believed to refer back to Allah. Allah is unique (wahid), inherently One (ahad), the only Deity (God), creator of the universe and omnipotent. Humble submission to His Will, Divine Ordinances and Commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. According to the tradition of Islam there are 99 Names of Allah (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: "The best names") each of which evoke a distinct characteristic (attribute) of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of Allah, the most famous and most frequently used ones are "the Merciful" (al-rahman) and "the Compassionate" (al-rahim).

Al-murshid al-kâmil: Perfect murshid (all murshids are perfect).  

Âqil(Plural al-‘uqqāl): The possessor of aql. 

Aql(literally "something tied to an animal's feet to restrain it") means in general “intellect, intelligence, reason, rational faculty, wit, brain, mind, wisdom …” But as an Islamic concept, it refers to natural human knowledge in Islamic theology or to intellect in Islamic philosophy. In Shiah jurisprudence, aql is the process of using intellect or logic to deduce law.

Aql-ı Kull: The aql which comprehends the reality of everty thing; universal Aql; Allah’s eternal knowledge appearing through Hadhrath Muhammad (SAW) and awliya (friends) of Allah who are Hadhrat Muhammad’s (SAW) substitutes; active Aql;  Aql-ı Kull is said to be the first thing created by Allah from which “nafs-i kull” (universal self) was created. Universal self is inactive (passive). From these two, Aql-ı cüzz (particular, partial, personal aql) and the worlds were created.

Ârif: Knower; wise; an attribute of Allah; he who knows the reality of the created things; those (awliya of Allah) on whom the knowledge of Allah is disclosed].

Âsaf bin Balkiyya (Berahyâ): He was the person who brought the throne of Balkis in a very short time [before the glance of Hadhrat Sulaiman (AS) returned to him] and who was said to “have knowledge of the Book” in the chapter 27/40 of Quran called al-naml (the ants): “40. Said one who had knowledge of the Book: ‘I will bring it to thee before ever thy glance returns to thee!’ Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: ‘This is by the Grace of my Lord! - to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own soul; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honor!’ ”

Awliyaor “awliya of Allah” (plural of “wali”: Friends (saints) of Allah; saints (See also “Wali”)

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari or Hâce Muhammad bin Muhammad el-Buhârî (13181389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential SufiMuslim orders “the Naqshbandi”. Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari was born in 1318 in the village of Qasr-i-Hinduvan (later renamed Qasr-i Arifan) near Bukhara, and it was there that he died in 1389. Most of his life was spent in Bukhara Khwarezm and contiguous areas of Transoxiana. The only long journeys he undertook were for the performance of hajj on two occasions. He came into early contact with the Khwajagan (lit: the Masters), and was adopted as spiritual progeny by one of them, Baba Muhammad Sammasi, while still an infant. Sammasi was his first guide on the path, and more important was his relationship with Sammasi's principal khalifa (successor), Amir Kulal, the last link in the silsila before Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. It was Amir Kulal that he received his fundamental training on the path and whose company he kept for many years. Still more significant, however, was the instruction Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari received in the method of silent dhikr from the ruhaniya of Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani (ruhaniya refers to an initiation dispensed by the spiritual being of a departed preceptor). Although he was a spiritual descendant of Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani, Amir Kulal practised vocal dhikr, and after Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari received instruction in silent dhikr, he would absent himself from Amir Kulal's circle of followers whenever they engaged in dhikr of the tongue. This separation of Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari from Amir Kulal's circle may be thought of as marking the final crystallization of the Naqshbandiya, with silent dhikr, received from Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani and ultimately inherited from Abu Bakr, established as normative for the order. Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari died and was buried in his native village in 1389, and the tomb that was erected there for him become a principal place of visitation and a major element in the attraction in Bukhara.

Baqâ or baqaa, with literal meaning of permanency or subsistence, is a term in Sufi philosophy which describes a particular state of life with Allah, through Allah, in Allah, and for Allah. It is the summit of the mystical manazil (stations).

Baqâ billah: Subsistence through Allah; Appearance of the Existence / Being / Features / character traits of Allah in the body of the traveller after disappearance or annihilation of the false existence / being of the traveler (after fanâ); travellers being existent with the Being and Existence of Allah; traveller’s being alive with Allah his spirit being “one” and “the same” with Allah; traveller’s being a mirror to Allah’s noble character traits; traveller’s living without his previous metaphoric and pretended personality seperate from Allah; the disappearence of the false being / existence of the “knower” (the traveller) in the Real Being / Real Existence of the “Known” (Allah) and appearance of the Real Being / Real Existence of the “Known” (Allah) in the body of the “knower” (the traveller); traveller’s being aware that he has not a free and seperate personality from Allah and that his reality (his spirit) is in fact Allah and he is only a servant not being seperate from Allah. 

Barzakh(Arabic: برزخ):

In tariqa:(a). The time when the spirit is unaware of the realities (the reality of the created things) because of wrong-illusions of being a free human-being resulting from the human shape or human shaped-body into which it was breathed by Allah. In fact, the spirit is the servant (or rather “the attribute”) of Allah and it isn’t separate from Him as it is an attribute of Allah. However, when breathed into a human-shaped body which is created “from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape” (Quran 15/26) like a sculpture, the spirit forgot who it was, that is, it forgot that it was a servant (attribute) not being separate from Allah and dreamed that it was a free “individual” separate from Allah. In other words, the spirit identified itself with the body. Before having been breathed into this human-shaped body, it was a servant (attribute), but, after having been breathed, the people identified the spirit with the body and they gave the spirit (thining that it was the same with the body) a name different from its real name which is “servant”. The people started to call the spirit with this imagenary name given in fact to the body which was “from mud molded into shape” similar to the idols made out of clay, or stone or wood, the names of which “are naught but names which you have named, you and your fathers” (Quran 53/23). In this respect, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) says “Men are dreaming. They awake when they die”. That is, they understand that “they are completely dependant on Allah. They have no separate individuality. They aren’t free. They are nothing without Allah… They are all servants (slaves) of Him… etc.” But if a man understands this when he dies physically, it is useless. He should understand this before he dies physically. In other words, he should die, before he dies as ordered by Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) [die before you die], or should kill himself as ordered by Allah in Quran 2/54 […slay yourselves…]. This false thought of “free-individuality” of the spirit resulting from the human shape into which it was breathed is called in tariqa “barzakh = isthmus”.  However, this type of death (of false ego / entity or in fact revival / awakening of the spirit) is impossible for a man unless he gets education from a murshid. So, in tariqa, it is believed that if a man is not trained by a murshid, he can never get rid of barzakh, that is, of illusions, dreams or assumptions which hide the Reality (Allah and His attributes). If the spirit can’t get rid of this type of barzakh, he will never be aware of his being “servant” of Allah, the understanding of which is the main aim of man’s being created: “I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve (be servants of) Me.” (Quran 51/56). Because, in the other world, a new body will be created for man’s spirit and the spirit will identify again itself with this new body, forgetting its being “servant = attribute” of Allah and its being “One” with Allah. (b). The time which the spirit passes in the worldly-body of a person; the age in the mortal world, that is, the stage of life from the moment of birth from the womb to the moment of death. 

In sharia: Isthmus; the place (located between the world and hell) where the spirits or the souls of the dead people wait for the Day of Judgment; the intermediate state in which the spirit of the deceased is transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into a kind of "cold sleep" where the spirit will rest until the Qiyamah (Judgement Day).

Batil is an Arabic word meaning falsehood, and can be used to describe a nullified or invalid act or contract according to the sharia. It is at the same time the opposite of the word “Haqq”. Therefore it is used to indicate something which is fallacious, invalid, untrue, void, false or something which isn’t real or true.

Bayazid Bastami, also known as Abu Yazid Bistami or Tayfur Abu Yazid al-Bustami, (804-874 CE) was a PersianSufi born in Bostam (alternate spelling: Bastam), Iran. Hadhrat Bayazid Bastami emphasized the importance of ecstasy, referred to in his words as drunkenness (sukr or wajd), a means of annihilation in the Divine Presence. Hadhrat Bayazid Bastami is claimed to be one of the firsts to speak openly of "annihilation of the self in Allah" (fanâ fi 'Allah') and "subsistence through Allah" (baqâ' bi 'Allah). His sayings gained a wide circulation and soon exerted a captivating influence over the minds of students who aspired to understand the meaning of the wahdat al-wujud, Unity of Being. Before he died, someone asked him his age. He said: I am four years old. For seventy years I was veiled. I removed my veils only four years ago.” He died in 874 CE. Bayazid lived a century before Abul Hassan Kharaqani. Attar Neishapouri has mentioned in his book Tadhkiratul-Awliya that Hadhrat Bayazid Bastami had spoken about the personality and state of Sheikh Abul Hassan Kharaqani with his disciples while passing from the village of Kharaqan, almost 100 years before the birth of Sheikh Abul Hassan. Bayazid Bastami had great influence on Sufimysticism and is considered to be one of the important early teachers of Sufi Islam. One of his sayings quoted from “Tadhkiratul Awliya” by Farid al-Din Attar:

“I stood with the pious and I didn’t find any progress with them. I stood with the warriors in the cause and I didn’t find a single step of progress with them. Then I said, ‘O Allah, what is the way to You?’ and Allah said, ‘Leave yourself and come.’ ”

Balkis is the queen mentioned in the chapter 27 of Quran called al-naml (the ants):

     23. "I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne.

          24. "I found her and her people worshipping the sun besides Allah. Satan has made their deeds seem pleasing in their eyes, and has kept them away from the Path, - so they receive no guidance,-

          25. "So that they worship not Allah, Who brings forth what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what ye hide and what ye reveal.

     38. He said (to his own men): "Ye chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?"

     39. A stalwart of the Jinns said: "I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose, and may be trusted."

     40. Said one who had knowledge of the Book: "I will bring it to thee before ever thy glance returns to thee!" Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: "This is by the Grace of my Lord! - to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own soul; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honor!”

Caliph / khalif / khalifa: (a). In tariqa, caliph / khalif / khalifa means the person who is the spiritual deputy (substitute) of the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). Caliphs in tariqa are called as sheikhs, murshids, masheikhs, pirs, etc. They are masters guiding the spirits of the disciples to the essence of Allah. (b). In sharia, it means “head of state”. It was often known as Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين) "Commander of the Believers", Imam al-Ummah, Imam al-Mu'minīn (إمام المؤمنين), or more colloquially, leader of all the Muslims. Each member state (Sultanate, Wilayah, or Emirate) of the Caliphate had its own governor (Sultan, Wali or Emir). Dar al-Islam (lit. land of Islam) was referred to as any land under the rule of the caliphate, including a land populated by non-Muslims and land not under rule of the caliphate was referred to as Dar al-Kufr (lit. land of non-Islam), even if its inhabitants were Muslims, because they were not citizens under Sharia (Islamic law). According to Sunni Muslims, the first four caliphs, celebrated as the Rashidun (The Rightly Guided Caliphs), were Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) Sahaba (companions); Abu Bakr, then Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), then Uthman Ibn Affan, and the fourth was Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib). After the first four caliphs, the Caliphate was claimed by the dynasties such as Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, and for relatively short periods by other, competing dynasties in al-Andalus, North Africa, and Egypt. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the last Caliphate, the Ottoman Empire, and founded the Republic of Turkey, in 1924. The Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amir al-Mu'minin for Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate. According to most Sunnis the Caliph should be selected by Shura, elected by Muslims or their representatives; and according to Shia Islam, is an Imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt. From the time of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) until 1924, successive and contemporary caliphates were held by various dynasties, including the Umayyads (who were driven from Damascus to Córdoba), the Abbasids (who ruled from Baghdad and drove away the Umayyads from Damascus), the Fatimids (who ruled from Cairo), and finally the Ottomans. The caliphate is the only form of governance that has full approval in traditional Islamic theology, and "is the core political concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries."  

Caliphate(from the Arabicخلافة or khilafa) is the political leadership of the Muslim ummah in classical and medieval Islamic history and juristic theory. The head of state's position (Caliph) is based on the notion of a successor to the Islamic prophetHadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) political authority.

Cem: In Sufi terminology “Oneness” or “Unity of Being of Allah” or “Allah”; literal meaning “unification, gathering, becoming one and single”

Cem'ül-Cem:Traveler’s (a) reaching and entering into Oneness of Being of Allah without his previous metaphoric personality seperate from Allah,  (b) losing his “being / existence / methaphoric personality” completely in the Being of Allah (dying, perishing, evanescing, vanishing, total disappearance of the personality) or nonexistence (nothingness) in Allah and (c) Subsistence of the traveler through the Existence of Allah (traveller’s being alive with Allah) after annihilation of the existence (being / entity) of the traveler in the Existence of Allah.

Cenâb-ı Haqq: See “Haqq”

Christ: See “Isa”

Dargah: 1.The training institute of a sheikh; the buildings and the places where sheiks perform their activities; the gate or the door through which one can get admission to the presence of Allah or an exalted person; the place where the disciples perform their divine services (prayers, servitudes) toward Allah; meeting and education place of the Sheikh and his disciples.

Dhat(In Turkish Zat): The Essence; (in Islamic terminology) The Essence of Allah; Allah who is the owner of all servants, all properties, all features, all names (every thing).

Dhikr (Pl: Adhkaar): In Arabic "pronouncement", "invocation" or "remembrance". Dhikr is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of Allah. Dhikr as a devotional act often includes the repetition of the names of Allah, the supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature, and the sections of the Quran. The Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies. Each order or lineage within an order has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, singing divine songs, meditation, ecstasy, and trance. Dhikr in a group is not limited to these rules but most often done on Thursday and Sunday nights as part of the institutional practice of most orders. 

Dhul Janahain (literally: owner of the two wings): He who has both exoteric and esoteric knowledge. Both the physical lineage and the spiritual lineage are combined in the sheikhs who are believed to be “dhul Janahain”. 

Diwan or Divan:a collection of poems by a single author; it may be a 'selected works', or the whole body of the works of an Ottoman Turkish, Persian or Urdu author. 

Fanâ or Fanaa(فناء) is the Sufi term for extinction or annihilation. It means to annihilate the self, while remaining physically alive. Persons having entered this state are said to have no existence outside of, and be in complete unity with, his sheikh which is called Fanâ fish-sheikhor with Rasoul (the messanger, the prophet) which is called fanâ fir-Rasoul or with Allah which is called fanâ fillah. Fanâ is somewhat similar to the concepts of nirvana in Buddhism and Hinduism or moksha in Hinduism which also aim for annihilation of the self. Fanâ may be attained by constant rabeta (meditation) or dhikr (remembrance of Allah)and by contemplation on the attributes of Allah, coupled with the denunciation of human attributes. It is a sort of mental, yet real, death. The ultimate aim is the Truth. Three degrees may be distinguished here: fanâ of acts, attributes and essence. It is the annihilation of everything contingent, whether this be in the form of action, attribute or essence; more precisely, it is the annihilation of everything that is not Allah. Fanâ thus conceived is an internal state which requires from the Sufi a sustained and permanent effort of concentration to break ones fetters and take on the demands and calls of truth, by ones acts, ones moral virtues, ones whole being. That implies perfect control of oneself in words, deeds and thoughts. It is at this price that one attains an interior spiritual state where one becomes the pure and clear mirror in which the lights of Truth are reflected in all their splendour. 

Fanâ fish-sheikh: Total disappearance or annihilation of the methaphoric (pretended) personality and existence of the traveller (complete perishing, evanescing, vanishing, dying) in the real being (personality, existence, entity) of the Sheikh who is a friend of Allah and whose heart is the house (or mirror) of Allah; traveler’s losing his “being / existence / entity / methaphoric personality” completely in the being of his Sheikh (nonexistence or nothingness in the Sheikh) and  appearance of the features (attributes / personality) of the Sheikh in the body of the traveller; traveller’s living without his previous metaphoric personality seperate from the Sheikh; traveller’s being alive with the Sheikh his spirit being “one” and “the same” with the spirit of Sheikh; the disappearence of the false being / existence of the “knower” (the traveller) in the real being / existence / of the “known” (the Sheikh) and appearence of the real being / existence of the “known” (the Sheikh) in the false being / existence of the “knower” (the traveller); traveller’s being aware that his reality (his spirit) is in fact his Sheikh (except from his body made of clay) and that he is not the person he used to think .  

Fanâ fir-Rasoul: Total disappearance or annihilation of the personality and existence of the traveller (complete perishing, evanescing, vanishing, dying) in the being (personality, existence) of the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) who is (a) beloved of Allah (Habib) (b) father of the souls [ebu’l ervah = Father (origin) of the souls] and (c) the mirror of Allah; traveler’s losing his “being / existence / methaphoric (pretended) personality” completely in the being of the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) (nonexistence or  nothingness in the Prophet) and  appearance of the features (personality / character traits) of the Prophet in the body of the traveller; traveller’s living without his previous metaphoric personality seperate from the Prophet; traveller’s being alive with the Prophet his spirit being “one” and “the same” with the spirit of the Prophet; the disappearence of the false being / existence of the “knower” (the traveller) in the real being / existence / of the “known” (the Prophet) and appearence of the real being / existence of the “known” (the prophet) in the false being / existence of the “knower” (the traveller); traveller’s being aware that his reality (his spirit) is in fact the Prophet (except from his body made of clay) and that he is not the person he used to think .  

Fanâ fillah: Annihilation of the self in Allah; total disappearance or annihilation of the false (pretended) personality and existence of the traveller (complete perishing, evanescing, vanishing, dying) in the Existence / Being of Allah; traveler’s reaching and entering into Oneness of Being of Allah without his previous metaphoric personality seperate from Allah; traveller’s losing his “being / existence / methaphoric personality” completely in the Being of Allah (dying, perishing, evanescing, vanishing, total disappearance of the personality); traveller’s nonexistence or nothingness.

Faqih: An expert in in fiqh (Islamicjurisprudence or Islamic Law); jurist

Farq: (Literally) “Difference”; things’ being different from each other and from Allah.

Farq after Cem: (In Sufi terminology) being again different from Allah after Cem, that is after entering into Oneness of Being of Allah and coming back to this mortal (temporal, ephemeral, fading, transitory, accidental) world always being aware that his reality is Allah; regaining his personality while being aware of its falsehood; when compared with the Cem (Zat of Allah; Essence or  Core of Allah, Allah Himself, Real Individual), the Farq means “the creatures” and the Cem means “Allah”. 

Fiqh: Islamicjurisprudence or Islamic Law. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia (Islamic law) -based directly on the Quran and Sunna- that complements Sharia with evolving rulings/interpretations of Islamic jurists. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals and social legislation. There are four prominent Sunni schools of fiqh (Madhhab) and one school for the Shi'a. A person trained in fiqh is known as a Faqih (plural Fuqaha).

Etymology: The word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning "deep understanding" or "full comprehension". Technically it refers to the science of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence). The process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence, and the body of legal advisements so derived, is known as fiqh. The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of Allah which concern the actions of persons who own themselves bound to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), forbidden (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makruh) or merely permitted (mubah)". This definition is consistent amongst the jurists.

Introduction: There are cases where the Quran gives a clearly defined and concrete answer on how to deal with different issues. This includes how to perform the ritual purification (Arabic: wudu) before the obligatory daily prayers (Arabic: salat). The Quran states one needs to engage in daily prayers (Arabic: salat), and fast (Arabic: sawm) during the month of Ramadan; however, it does not define how to perform these duties. The details about these issues can be found in the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) (Arabic: Sunnah). This is true for most detailed issues, thus the Quran and Sunnah are the basis for the Islamic Divine Law (Arabic: Sharia). With regard to some topics, the Muslim jurists (Arabic: Fuqaha) try to arrive at conclusions using other tools. Sunni jurists use analogy (Arabic: Qiyas) and historical consensus of the community (Arabic: Ijma). The conclusions arrived at with the aid of these additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than the Sharia constitutes of, and is called “fiqh”. Thus, in contrast to the sharia, fiqh is not regarded as sacred, and the schools of thought have differing views on its details, without viewing other conclusions as sacrilegious. This division of interpretation in more detailed issues has resulted in different schools of thought (Arabic: madhhab). This wider concept of Islamic jurisprudence is the source of a range of laws in different topics that govern the lives of the Muslims in all facets of everyday life.

Islamic Law (fiqh) covers two main areas, rules in relation to actions and rules in relation to circumstances surrounding actions. Rules in relation to actions ('amaliyya) comprise:

*  Obligation (fardh)

*  Recommendation (mandoob)

*  Permissibility (mubah)

*  Disrecommendation (makrooh)

*  Prohibition (haram)

Rules in relation to circumstances (wadia') comprise:

*  Condition (shart)

*  Cause (sabab)

*  Preventor (mani)

*  Permit/Enforce (rukhsah, azeemah)

*  Valid/Corrupt/Invalid (sahih, faasid, batil)

*  In time/Debt/Repeat (adaa, al-qadaa, i'ada)

A Muslim Jurist is called an alim (pl. ulema), from the Arabic ilm (knowledge). They are also called the faqeeh (pl. fuqahaa) from the Arabic fiqh.

Gâbe gavseyn: Arrival (reaching) of the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) to Allah; the station of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) in the presence of Allah explained in Quran (53/7-8-9-10):  “7. While he (Muhammad) was in the highest part of the horizon: 8. Then he approached (Allah) and came closer, 9. And was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer; 10. So did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His Servant- (conveyed) what He (meant) to convey.”

Gavs or Gavs’ül Azam: See Qutub


1. Linguistically the word ‘hadith’ means that which is new from amongst things or a piece of information conveyed either in a small quantity or large. And hadith is what is spoken by the speaker.

2. In Islamic terminology, the term hadith refers to reports about the statements or actions of the last Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), or about his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence; the compilation of all that Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) said, did, or approved of; words and deeds of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW); oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW).

Sunni view of hadith: The Quran as we have it today was compiled by Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) companions (Sahaba) in approximately 650, and is accepted by all Muslim denominations. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Quran, but were actions that were observed by the Prophet and the community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practice of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim scholars sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narration of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunna, or Muslim way of life, by all traditional schools of jurisprudence. Over time, due to different social, religious and political considerations, many hadith collections developed. A consensus of Islamic scholars weighed various collections, and judged them to be in one of the following categories:

*       Sahih: Genuine, correct, the best category

*       Hasan: Fair, the middle category and

*       Da’if: Weak

By the ninth century six collections of hadiths were accepted as reliable by Muslims:

*       Sahih al-Bukhari

*       Sahih Muslim

*       Sunan an-Nasa'ii

*       Sunan Abu Dawud

*       Sunan at-Tirmidhi

*       Sunan ibn Majah

Most Sunni accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim as the most authentic (sahih, or correct), and grant a lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are also other collections of hadith which, although less well-known, are still thought to contain many authentic hadiths and are frequently used by specialists. Examples of these collections include:

*       Muwatta of Imam Malik

*       Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal

*       Sahih Ibn Khuzaima

*       Sahih Ibn Hibban

*       Mustadrak of Al Haakim

*       Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq

Hadith qudsi: Sacred hadith; hadith which was said by (through the mouth of) Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) but inspired by and received from Allah; Muslims regard the Hadith Qudsi as the words of Allah, repeated by Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and recorded on the condition of an isnad (chain of verification by witness or witnesses who heard Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) say the hadith). At first, there seems to be no reason for distinguishing Quranic verses from the verses in the hadith qudsi, as both are regarded as directly inspired from Allah. However, according to exoteric scholars “the hadith qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former were revealed in a dream or through revelation and are "expressed in Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of Allah" conveyed through Gabriel (Arabic: Jibrīl or Jibrail). Hence, hadith qudsi rank as a source of Islamic knowledge below the Quran but above all other hadiths.”

Hadhrat/ Hadrat / Hazrat (Arabic: حضرات) (Turkish: Hazret-i …): This word is an honorific Arabic or Islamic title used to honor a person. The literal translation of Hadhrat means "Great Presence". 

Hâl / Haal: Literally "state" or "condition", plural ahwal. Hâl is a special-purpose, temporary state of consciousness, generally a product of spiritual practices, recognised in Sufism. A hâl is by nature transient and one should not attempt to prolong it. It results from psychological or spiritual influences which affect the man of the Way (Tariqa) during his progress towards Allah. Related concepts are Ecstasy (wajad), Annihilation (istilam), Happiness (bast), Despondency (qabd) , Awakening (sahû) Drunkenness (sukr), etc. They arise like flashes on the horizon, blinding flashes of lightning which disappear immediately. However, these stages are necessary for the liberating experience of Man; thanks to them He may distinguish the contingent from the consciousness anything except that which is destined to endure. According to Ibn Arabi, Fanâ (extinction, complete annihilation) is the apex of the ahwal.

Haqq (حقّ) and Cenâb-ı Haqq: Haqq is the Arabic word for Truth. It also means “true” or “real”. In Islamic context, it is interpreted as righteousness, right and (certain) reality. Al-Haqq, the truth, is one of the names of Allah mentioned in the Quran. And, consequently, each one of Allah’s attributes is considered to be “Haqq” (Real, True). It is often used to refer to Allah as the quality of Ultimate Reality in Sufism. In stead of using the name of Allah, Muslims prefer saying Cenâb-ı Haqq which means Almighty (Exalted, High, Sublime …) Allah, His majesty, His excellency. 

Haqiqa / Haqiqah / Haqiqat (Arabic: حقيقة‎): This word is literally translated as Reality, Essence or (Ultimate) Truth. In the Islamic terninology it means “Allah / The Entity of Allah / The Sole Existent Being / Supreme Being”. In Sufi thought, one can reach Haqiqa through spiritual training under the guidance of a Sheikh and through adherence to sharia (Islamic Rules) and the principle of tawhid (believing in Oneness of Allah). For Sufis, when an individual has gone through Haqiqa and reached the station of marifa he or she is able to see the true nature of Allah, and he or she becomes Real Servant (The True Human Being), as Allah intended when He created the person. He or she will fully understand the very reason of one's existence.

Haqq al-yaqin: Truth of certainty

Hauzu’l-Kausar or “Hawz’ul Kawsar”is the lake of abundance in Jannah (paradise). Persons having crossed the SiratBridge arrive at this lake, from which one is expected to drink to forget any bad experiences they may have had during their lives, before moving further into paradise. As the term kausar only occurs once in the Quran, its' exact meaning is subject to different interpretations. It is also known as the lake of good the pond of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and the sacred fountain of heaven. 

Hayy: The Ever Living One; Alive; Hayy is one of the names of the attributes of Allah

Himma / Himmah / Himmat: (Spiritual) help and protection, auspices, positive influence of a Sheikh to his disciple 

Ibn Arabi: He was an ArabSufi Muslim mystic and philosopher. His full name was Abû abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Arabi al-Hatimi al-Taa'i. He was born in Madinat Mursiya (present day Murcia) in Al-Andalus (Spain) on 17 Ramadan 560 ah / July 28, 1165 CE, and his family moved to Sevilla when he was eight years old. In 1200 CE, at the age of thirty-five, he left Iberia for Mecca intending to make the hajj. He lived near Mecca for three years, where he began writing his Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (The Meccan Illuminations). In 1204, he left Mecca for Anatolia with Majd-al-Din Es'haq (Isaac), whose son Sadr-al-Din Qunawi (1210-1274) would be his most influential disciple. In 1223, he settled in Damascus, where he lived the last seventeen years of his life. He died at the age of 76 on 22 Rabi' II 638 AH / November 10, 1240CE, and his tomb in Damascus is still an important place of pilgrimage. A vastly prolific writer, Ibn Arabi is generally known as the prime exponent of the idea later known as Wahdat-ul-Wujood, though he did not use this term in his writings. His emphasis was on the true potential of the human being and the path to realising that potential and becoming the perfect or complete man (al-insan al-kâmil). Some 800 works are attributed to Ibn Arabi, although only some have been authenticated. 

Ibrahim (Abraham): Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) (born 1900 BC to 1861 BC – died 1814 BC to 1716 BC) is an important prophet in Islam. He is the son of Azar and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son. Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is considered as the Father of the Prophets. Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is commonly termed Khalil Allah, or "Close Friend of Allah". Islam regards many of the biblical patriarchs as prophets of Allah, and hence as Muslims (i.e., monotheists). Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is regarded as a Hanif (meaning a discoverer of monotheism without being taught by a messenger). Because of their mutual veneration for Hadhrat Abraham (AS), Islam, Christianity and Judaism are sometimes summarized under the term "Abrahamic religions".  

The faith of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is called Millat-e-Ibrahim in the Quran. Muslims believe that Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is a prophet of Allah, in accordance with the narrative of his life in the Quran. Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and his son Hadhrat Ismail (AS) are said to have fixed the Kaaba in Mecca. (Quran 2:125). Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) also has an important role in one of the Pillars of Islam, the Hajj, which is a pilgrimage to the Holy Mosque. The principal aspect of the Hajj is remembering Hadhrat Ibrahim’s (AS) sacrifice of Hadhrat Ismail (AS) [Hadhrat Ibrahim’s (AS) firstborn son] and his path to the altar where Iblis (Satan) attempted to dissuade him three times. Those places where Satan appeared are marked with three symbolic pillars where pilgrims throw stones. Moreover a part of the Hajj is a commemoration of the sacrifice and efforts of Hadhrat Hâgar), the wife of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS), to find water for her son Hadhrat Ismail (AS), when he was near dead with thirst. She ran between the two hills, Safa and Marwa, seven times and this ritual, Saaee (means effort/struggle in Arabic) is mandatory for all pilgrims to Mecca. During her quest for water she saw that a spring of fresh water had erupted near where her son Hadhrat Ismail (AS) was laying. That spring became the basis of founding the city of Mecca, since fresh water was scarce in that barren land, and many tribes settled around there. This spring has been running for thousands of years. Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) settled his wife and son in the valley of Mecca by Allah's order, to pioneer a civilization. It was from this civilization that the final prophet of Islam, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), was later born. 

In Islamic prayer, Salat(Namâz), that occurs five times a day, Muslims have a specific dua (invocation to Allah) that they recite asking Allah to bless both Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and their household. According to Islamic tradition, Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is buried in Hebron. In the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, there is an area known as the "station of Ibrahim" (Maqam Ibrahim), which is said to bear an impression of his footprints. There are numerous references to Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) in the Quran. 

Ibrahim Hakkı Erzurumi (1703 - 1780), A Turkish Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist. In 1756 he published his work Marifetname (Book of Gnosis) which was a compilation and commentary on astronomy, mathematics, anatomy, psychology, philosophy, and Islamic mysticism (tasawwuf).Core to Erzurumi's philosophy is that self-examination is absolutely necessary as part of the process of discovery of Allah: "Allah has revealed in His Divine Books, and has sent His prophets as guides to help lead us back to heedfulness. Only those who are able to wake up and rediscover that which is holy within themselves can come close to our Creator, which is perfection." He is widely quoted for saying, "If we take a step towards Allah, He will come running to meet us." which is derived from a hadith qudsi

Iftar (Arabic: إفطار), refers to the evening meal for breaking sawm (fasting) during the Islamicmonth of Ramadan. Iftar as one of the religious observances of Ramadan is often done as a community, with Muslims gathering to break their fast together. Iftar is done right after Maghrib (sunset) time. Traditionally, a date is preferred as the first thing to be consumed during iftar when the fast is broken.

Ihsan(or Ehsan or Ahsan or احسان) is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence," which is related to the word "goodness" (husn). It is a matter of taking one's inner faith (iman) and showing it in both deed and action, a sense of social responsibility borne from religious convictions. In Islam, ihsan is the Muslim responsibility to obtain perfection, or excellence, in worship, such that “Muslims try to worship Allah as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him” (Due to believing Allah is not made of materials), they undoubtedly believe he is constantly watching over them. That definition comes from the hadith (known as the Hadith of Gabriel) in which Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) states, "(Ihsan is) to worship Allah as though you see Him, and if you cannot see Him, then indeed He sees you." (Al-Bukhari and Al-Muslim). 

Ihsan, meaning "to do beautiful things," is one of the three dimensions of the Islamic religion (ad-din): Islam, iman and ihsan. In contrast to the emphases of Islam (what one should do) and iman (why one should do), the concept of ihsan is primarily associated with intention. One who "does what is beautiful" is called a muhsin. It is generally held that a person can only achieve true ihsan with the help and guidance of Allah, who governs all things. Some Islamic scholars explain ihsan as being the inner dimension of Islam whereas sharia is often described as the outer dimension.

From the preceding discussion it should be clear that not every Muslim is a man or woman of real (perfect) faith (mu'min), but every person of faith is a Muslim. Furthermore, a Muslim who believes in all the principles of Islam may not necessarily be a righteous person, a doer of good (muhsin), but a truly good and righteous person is both a Muslim and a true person of faith.

Ihsan "constitutes the highest form of worship" (ibadah). It is excellence in work and in social interactions. For example, ihsan includes sincerity during Muslim prayers and being grateful to parents, family, and Allah.

Ijma(إجماع) is an Arabic term referring ideally to the consensus of the ummah (the community of Muslims, or followers of Islam). The hadithof Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) which states that "My community will never agree upon an error" is often cited as support for the validity of ijma. Sunni Muslims regard ijma as the third fundamental source of Sharia law, after the divine revelation of the Quran and the prophetic practice or Sunna. The analogical reasoning or qiyas is described as the fourth source in Sunni Islam, whereas Shi'a Islam uses aql (intellect). Technically it is “the unanimous doctrine and opinion of the recognized religious authorities at any given time”.

Ikhlas(in sharia): Fidelity; sincerity; "the purity" or "the refining", meaning to remain pure and faithful or a state of purging one's soul of non-Islamic beliefs, such as paganism and polytheism

Imsaq: The time when the day's fast begins during Ramadan or the time when the Muslims can start to perform the Morning Prayer (namâz). 

Insan al-Kâmil: “Al-Insan al-Kâmil”

Irshad: To awaken the sleeping spirit of a disciple (murid); to revive the death spirit of a disciple; to show the disciple the Reality of the created things (objects of the Universe); to lead the disciple to the Reality (Allah); to teach the disciple what is right and what is wrong. 

Isa (Hadhrat Isa = Jesus = Christ): Jesus in Islam is a messenger of Allah who had been sent to guide the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl) with a new scripture, the Injīl (gospel). The Quran, Allah's final revelation, states that Jesus was born to Mary (Arabic: Maryam) as the result of virginal conception, a miraculous event which occurred by the decree of Allah. To aid him in his quest, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles, all by the permission of Allah. According to Islamic texts, Jesus was neither killed nor crucified, but rather he was raised alive up to Heaven. Islamic traditions narrate that he will return to earth near the Day of Judgment to restore justice and defeat al-Masīh ad-Dajjāl (lit. "the false messiah", also known as the Antichrist. Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus is a Muslim, as he preached for people to adopt the straight path in submission to Allah's will. Islam rejects that Jesus was Allah incarnate or the son of Allah, stating that he was an ordinary man who, like other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread Allah's message. Islamic texts forbid the association of partners with Allah (shirk), emphasizing the notion of Allah's divine oneness (tawhīd). Numerous titles are given to Jesus in the Quran, such as al-Masīh ("the messiah; the anointed one" i.e. by means of blessings), although it does not correspond with the meaning accrued in Christian belief. Jesus is seen in Islam as a precursor to Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter's coming. According to Islamic texts, Jesus was divinely chosen to preach the message of monotheism and submission to the will of Allah to the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl). Muslims believe that Allah revealed to Jesus a new scripture, the Injīl (gospel), while also declaring the truth of the previous revelation, the Torah. The Quran speaks favorably of the Injīl, which it describes as a scripture that fills the hearts of its followers with meekness and pity. Muslims believe that these scriptures had become distorted over time in text, interpretation, or both. The Quran states that Jesus was aided by a group of disciples (hawāriyūn) who believed in Jesus' message, and termed themselves the ansār ("helpers") of Allah. He was also strengthened by the same Holy Spirit that visited his mother Mary. Jesus is also depicted in Islam as having been given miracles as evidence of his prophetic mission. Such miracles, all performed by the leave of Allah, include: speaking while still in the cradle; breathing life into clay models of birds; curing a leper and a life-long blind man; raising the dead; and requesting the descent of a table from heaven upon which was a feast, upon petition of his disciples. Some Muslim accounts also relate that the Islamic prophet Yahya ibn Zakariyya (known otherwise as John the Baptist) traveled to Palestine and met Jesus at the Jordan River.

His Birth:

Muslims believe in the virginal conception of Jesus by Mary (Maryam), which is recounted throughout several passages in the Quran. According to the Quranic narrative, Mary had withdrawn into a temple and was visited by an angel an agent of divine action or communication commonly identified in Islam with the angel Gabriel (Jibreel) but also with the created spirit from Allah by which he enlivened Adam. He proclaimed to her the conception of Jesus. Mary was startled, for she had vowed her virginity to Allah and intended to retain it. The angel reassured her, stating that such a conception was easy for Allah, who wished to make from her a sign (āya) to men and a mercy (rahma) from Him. The Quran describes the conception as the result of a creative decree made by Allah, similar to the creation of Adam. Some Quranic exegetes describe the event of conception as the angel's breathing into the cloak of Mary; which, upon putting it on, resulted in Jesus being conceived. Afterwards, Mary withdrew "to a distant place."After delivering Jesus, Mary was overtaken by the pangs of childbirth, resting near the trunk of a palm tree. Jesus then addressed her from the cradle, to instruct her to shake the tree and obtain its fruits, and also to allay Mary's fears of a scandal surrounding his conception. She then showed the new-born to her family, and in silencing immodest rumors he declared: "Lo, I am Allah's servant; Allah has given me the Book, and made me a Prophet. Blessed he has made me, wherever I may be; and He has enjoined me to pray, and to give alms, so long as I live, and likewise to cherish my mother."

A Hadith about the birth of Jesus:

“When any human being is born, Satan touches him at both sides of the body with his two fingers, except Jesus, the son of Mary, whom Satan tried to touch but failed, for he touched the placenta-cover instead.” According to al-Tabari, this was due to the prayer of Mary's mother: "I seek refuge in you for her and her progeny from the accursed Satan."

The Ascension of Jesus: Islamic texts categorically deny the crucifixion and death of Jesus at the hands of the Jews. The Quran states that the Jews sought to kill Jesus, but they did not kill nor crucify him, although a likeness of it was shown to them. Instead, he was raised alive unto Allah: “That they said (in boast), ‘We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah; - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:- Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.”[Quran 4:157–158] Muslims believe that Jesus will return at a time close to the end of the world. One Quranic verse alludes to Jesus' future return as follows: “And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour), but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way.”[Quran 43:61] According to Islamic tradition, Jesus' descent will be in the midst of wars fought by the Mahdi (lit. "the rightly guided  one"), known in Islamic eschatology as the redeemer of Islam, against the Antichrist (al-Masīh ad-Dajjāl, "false messiah") and his followers. Jesus will descend at the point of a white arcade in Damascus, dressed in yellow robes - his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal. Jesus, considered in Islam as a Muslim, will abide by the Islamic teachings. Eventually, Jesus will slay the Dajjal, and then everyone from the people of the book (ahl al-kitāb, referring to Jews and Christians) will believe in him. Thus, there will be one community, that of Islam. After the death of the Mahdi, Jesus will assume leadership. This is a time associated in Islamic narrative with universal peace and justice. Islamic texts also allude to the appearance of Ya'juj and Ma'juj (known also as Gog and Magog), ancient tribes which will disperse and cause destruction on earth. Allah, in response to Jesus' prayers, will kill them by sending a type of worm in the napes of their necks. Jesus' rule is said to be around forty years, after which he will die. Muslims will then perform the funeral prayer for him and then bury him in the city of Medina in a grave left vacant beside Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), Abu Bakr, and Umar (companions of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and the first and second Muslim caliphs respectively).

Jesus in Quran:

Quran 5:17 

“In blasphemy indeed are those that say that God is Christ the son of Mary. Say: "Who then hath the least power against God, if His will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary, his mother, and all every - one that is on the earth? For to God belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between. He createth what He pleaseth. For God hath power over all things.”

Quran 3:55

“And when Allah said: O Isa, [Jesus] I am going to terminate the period of your stay (on earth) and cause you to ascend unto Me and purify you of those who disbelieve and make those who follow you above those who disbelieve to the day of resurrection; then to Me shall be your return, so l will decide between you concerning that in which you differed.”

Quran 4:155–159

“Then because of their breaking of their covenant, and their disbelieving in the revelations of Allah, and their slaying of the prophets wrongfully, and their saying: Our hearts are hardened — Nay, but Allah set a seal upon them for their disbelief, so that they believe not save a few - And because of their disbelief and of their speaking against Mary a tremendous calumny;

And because of their saying: We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, Allah's Messenger - they slew him not nor crucified him, but it appeared so unto them; and lo! Those who disagree concerning it are in doubt thereof; they have no knowledge thereof save pursuit of a conjecture; they slew him not for certain. But Allah took him up unto Himself. Allah was ever Mighty, Wise. There is not one of the People of the Scripture but will believe in him before his death, and on the Day of Resurrection he will be a witness against them.”

Quran 4:171

“O followers of the Book! [The Bible] do not exceed the limits in your religion, and do not speak (lies) against Allah, but (speak) the truth; the Messiah, Isa son of Marium [Jesus son of Mary] is only an apostle of Allah and His Word which He communicated to Marium and a spirit from Him; believe therefore in Allah and His apostles, and say not, Three. Desist, it is better for you; Allah is only one God; far be It from His glory that He should have a son, whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His, and Allah is sufficient for a Protector.”

Quran 5:72–78

“Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah, He is the Messiah, son of Marium; and the Messiah said: O Children of Israel! Serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Surely whoever associates (others) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden to him the garden, and his abode is the fire; and there shall be no helpers for the unjust. Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah is the third (person) of the three; and there is no god but the one God, and if they desist not from what they say, a painful chastisement shall befall those among them who disbelieve.”

Quran 5:109–118

“And when Allah will say: O Isa son of Marium! [Jesus son of Mary] did you say to men, Take me and my mother for two gods besides Allah he will say: Glory be to Thee, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, Thou wouldst indeed have known it; Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Thy mind, surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things.”

Quran 19:27–29

“Then she brought him to her own folk, carrying him. They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with an amazing thing.
O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man nor was thy mother a harlot. Then she pointed to him. They said: How can we talk to one who is in the cradle, a young boy? He spake: Lo! I am the slave of Allah. He hath given me the Scripture and hath appointed me a Prophet, And hath made me blessed wheresoever I may be, and hath enjoined upon me prayer and almsgiving so long as I remain alive, And (hath made me) dutiful toward her who bore me, and hath not made me arrogant, unblest. Peace on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive! Such was Jesus, son of Mary: (this is) a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt. It befitteth not (the Majesty of) Allah that He should take unto Himself a son. Glory be to Him! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! And it is. And lo! Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So serve Him. That is the right path. The sects among them differ: but woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of an awful Day. See and hear them on the Day they come unto Us! Yet the evil-doers are today in error manifest. And warn them of the Day of anguish when the case hath been decided. Now they are in a state of carelessness, and they believe not.”

Quran 61:6

“And when Isa son of Marium [Jesus son of Mary] said: O children of Israel! Surely I am the apostle of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Taurat and giving the good news of an Apostle who will come after me, his name being Ahmad [Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW)], but when he came to them with clear arguments they said: This is clear magic.”

Jesus is described by various means in the Quran. The most common reference to Jesus occurs in the form of "Ibn Maryam" (son of Mary), sometimes preceded with another title. Jesus is also recognised as a prophet (nabī) and messenger (rasūl) of Allah. The terms wadjih ("worthy of esteem in this world and the next"), mubārak ("blessed", or "a source of benefit for others"), `abd-Allāh (servant of Allah) are all used in the Quran in reference to Jesus.  Another title frequently mentioned is al-Masīh, which translates to "the Messiah." This does not correspond to the Christian concept of Messiah, as Islam regards all prophets, including Jesus, to be mortal and without any share in divinity. Muslim exegetes explain the use of the word masīh in the Quran as referring to Jesus' status as the one anointed by means of blessings and honors; or as the one who helped cure the sick, by anointing the eyes of the blind, for example. Quranic verses also employ the term "kalimatullah" (meaning the "word of Allah") as a descriptor of Jesus, which is interpreted as a reference to the creating word of Allah, uttered at the moment of Jesus' conception; or as recognition of Jesus' status as a messenger of Allah, speaking on Allah's behalf. Islamic texts regard Jesus as a righteous messenger of Allah, and reject him as being Allah or the begotten Son of Allah. This belief, according to Islam, is tantamount to shirk, or the association of partners with Allah; and thereby a rejection of Allah's divine oneness (tawhid). The Christian doctrine of the Trinity is similarly rejected in Islam. Such notions of the divinity of Jesus, Muslims state, resulted from human interpolations of Allah's revelation. Islam views Jesus as an ordinary human being who preached that salvation came through submission to Allah's will and worshiping Allah alone. Thus, Jesus is considered in Islam to have been a Muslim, as with all prophets in Islam. Muslims believe that Jesus was a precursor to Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), and that he announced the latter's coming. They base this on a verse of the Quran wherein Jesus speaks of a messenger to appear after him named Ahmad. Islam associates Ahmad with Muhammad, both words deriving from the h-m-d triconsonantal root which refers to praiseworthiness. Muslims also assert that evidence of Jesus' pronouncement is present in the New Testament, citing the mention of the Paraclete whose coming is foretold in the Gospel of John. Muslim commentators claim that the original Greek word used was periklutos, meaning famed, illustrious, or praiseworthy - rendered in Arabic as Ahmad; and that this was substituted by Christians with parakletos.  Jesus is widely venerated in Muslim ascetic and mystic literature, such as in Muslim mystic Al-Ghazzali's Ihya `ulum ad-Din ("The revival of the religious sciences"). These works lay stress upon Jesus' poverty, his preoccupation with worship, his detachment from worldly life and his miracles. Such depictions also include advice and sermons which are attributed to him. Later Sufic commentaries adapted material from Christian gospels which were consistent with their ascetic portrayal. Sufi philosopher Ibn Arabi described Jesus as "the seal of universal holiness" due to the quality of his faith and "because he holds in his hands the keys of living breath and because he is at present in a state of deprivation and journeying."

Islamis a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of the last Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) lived in 7th century. The word Islam means "submission", or the total surrender of oneself to Allah. An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits to Allah. The word Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive. Allah revealed the Quran to Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), Allah’s final prophet, through the angel Gabriel. Quran and the Sunna(words and deeds of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) are the fundamental sources of Islam. Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) wasn’t the founder of a new religion, but was the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Islamic tradition holds that Jews and Christiansdistorted the revelations Allah gave to these prophets by either altering the text, introducing a false interpretation, or both. Islam includes many religious practices. Adherents are generally required to observe the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community. In addition to the Five Pillars, Islamic law (sharia) has developed a tradition of rulings that touch on virtually all aspects of life and society. This tradition encompasses everything from practical matters like dietary laws and banking to warfare and welfare

Jahannam or nâr(Turkish: cehennem) is the Islamic equivalent to hell. According to the Quran only Allah knows who will go to Jahannam and who will go to Jannah. Those who ignored, or only pretended to believe in Allah remain in Jahannam after Qiyamah (Judgment Day). Unfaithful Muslims not true to their religion will be punished in Jahannam, but will eventually be forgiven. However, those who commit shirk, that is, the sin of polytheism, will be condemned to Jahannam for eternity.

Jannahis the Islamic conception of paradise or heaven. The Arabic form Jannah is a shortened version meaning simply "Garden". According to Islamic eschatology, after death, one will reside in the grave until the appointed resurrection on Yawm al-Qiyāmah(resurrection day). Muslims believe that the treatment of the individual in the life of the grave will be according to his or her deeds in the worldly life. Jannah is often compared to Christian concepts of Heaven. According to Muslim belief, everything one longs for in this world, will be there in Paradise. Paradise itself is commonly described in the Quran. The highest level of Paradise is Firdaws, which is where the prophets, the martyrs and the most truthful and pious people will dwell. In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam and nâr are used to refer to the concept of hell.

Descriptions of Paradise: The descriptions of paradise are mentioned in significant detail in the Quran, hadith, and traditional exegeses. Paradise is described as surrounded by eight principal gates, each level generally being divided into a hundred degrees. The highest level is known as firdaws (sometimes called Eden). It will be entered first by Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), then those who lived in poverty, and then the most pious. Entrants will be greeted by angels with salutations of peace. The Islamic texts describes life for its immortal inhabitants, one that is happy - without hurt, sorrow, fear or shame - where every wish is fulfilled. Traditions relate that inhabitants will be of the same age (33 years), and of the same stature. Their life is one of bliss including wearing costly robes, bracelets, perfumes; partaking in exquisite banquets, served in priceless vessels by immortal youths; reclining on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones. Other foods mentioned include meats, scented wine and clear drinks bringing neither drunkenness nor rousing quarrelling. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, spouses, and children (provided they were admitted to paradise) - conversing and recalling the past. Texts also relate "pure consorts" (houris), created in perfection, with whom carnal joys are shared - "a hundred times greater than earthly pleasure". The dwellings for inhabitants will be pleasant, with lofty gardens, shady valleys, fountains scented with camphor or ginger; rivers of water, milk, honey and wines; delicious fruits of all seasons without thorns; pavilions wherein houri are kept. One day in paradise is considered equal to a thousand days on earth. Palaces are made from gold, silver, pearls, among other things. Large trees are described, mountains made of musk, between which rivers flow in valleys of pearl and ruby

In spite of the goodly dwellings given to the inhabitants of paradise, the approval of Allah and nearness to Him is considered greater. According to the Quran, Allah will bring the elect near to his throne (arsh), a day on which "some faces shall be shining in contemplating their Lord." The vision of Allah is regarded as the greatest of all rewards, surpassing all other joys.

Jamaal or jamaalullah:Beauty (of the face) of Allah; beauty of the attributes of Allah

Jesus: See “Isa”

Kâfir (lit. Concealer of the Truth) (plural: Kuffar) is an Arabic word meaning "rejecter" or "ingrate". In the Islamic doctrinal sense, the term refers to a person who does not recognize Allah or the prophethood of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) or who hides, denies, or covers the "Truth". In cultural terms, it is seen as a derogatory term used to describe an unbeliever, non-Muslims, apostate from Islam and even between Muslims of different sects. It is usually translated into English as "infidel" or "unbeliever".

When compared with the word “mushrik”, a person who recognizes Allah but associates partners with Him, the word “kâfir” means “a person who does not recognize Allah”. Islamic law (sharia) distinguishes three types of kafirs:

1.  Kâfir dhimmi: A non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia law.

2. Kâfir harbi: A non-Muslim living in a non-Muslim country, and

3. Kâfir musta'min: A harbi visiting a Muslim country for less than a year.

   Debate exists between some Muslim scholars as to whether the term applies to certain religions, as these can also be regarded as Ahl al-Kitab, People of the Book or Dhimmi ("protected people"). "Kâfir" has been used historically to identify the followers of non-denominational religions or local traditions.   

   Etymology:  The word kâfir is the active participle of the rootK-F-R "to cover". As a pre-Islamic term it described farmers burying seeds in the ground, covering them with soil while planting. Thus, the word kâfir implies the meaning "a person who hides or covers". In Islamic parlance, a kâfir is a word used to describe a person who rejects Islamic faith, i.e. "hides or covers [viz., the truth]". "Kafara" ~ the root verb ~ means "he hid (something)" and "he covered (something)" or "He hid (something) by covering it up." Both "hiding" and "covering up" are indelible significations of all of the words arising on the verbal root. Thus "unbeliever" does not translate the word at all. In its usual context, kâfir and kâfirun (the plural) denote those who know the truth of Islam and hide it, denying their knowledge or falsifying the evidence by which they know it. That is a very small minority of people.

    Quranic references: The word kâfir (and related words, such as the abstract noun kufr "disbelief") is mentioned in the Quran in five different senses:

1. Kufr al-tawheed: To reject the belief in the Oneness of Allah. The Quran says: “As to those who reject faith (kafaru), it is the same to them whether you warn them or do not warn them; they will not believe” [Quran 2:6]

2. Kufr al-ni`mah: To lack gratefulness to Allah or to people. The Quran says: “Therefore remember Me, I will remember you, and be thankful to Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me. (lâ takfurun)” [Quran 2:152] “(Pharaoh) said (to Moses): … And you did (that) deed of yours which you did, and you are one of the ungrateful (kafireen)” [Quran 26:18]

3. Kufr at-tabarri: To disown / clear oneself from. The Quran says: “Indeed, there is for you a good example in Ibrahim and those with him when they said to their people: ‘Surely we are clear of you (kafarna bekom).’ ” [Quran 60:4]

4. Kufr al-juhud: To deny. The Quran says: “When there comes to them that which they (should) have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it.” [Quran 2:89]

5. Kufr at-taghtiyah: To hide / bury something, like planting a seed in the ground. The Quran says: “The likeness of vegetation after rain, whereof the growth is pleasing to the husbandman (kuffar.)” [Quran 57:20]

The word kufr can also be applied to a Muslim when he is doing something wrong, but not necessarily something that would place him or her outside the state of belief in Islam. For example, a Muslim who is able to perform the Hajj (pilgrimage) but does not go, without denying the need to go, would be committing an act of kufr in a sense of ungratefulness to Allah: “Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-'Alamîn (the mankind and jinns). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqâm (place) of Abraham (Arabic: Ibrâhim); whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka'bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves (wa man kafara) [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allah], then Allah stands not in need of any of the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns)” [Quran 3:96]

Acts that invalidate Islam:

Verily, God forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom He pleases other sins than that" (al-Nisa 116).

“Say: Was it God, or His signs or His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse, you have disbelieved after you had believed.” (al-Tauba 65-66).

“And who does more wrong than he who is reminded of the signs of his Lord, then he turns aside therefrom? Verily, We shall exact retribution from the sinners”.

The Kafiroon are not to be confused with the munafiq. The munafiq are Muslim hypocrites.

Kâmil: Perfect, free from the deficiencies, faultless, excellent, blameless, accomplished, beyond reproach, well-trained, savant, saint, friend of Allah, wali. 

Kâmil İnsan: See “Al-Insan al-Kâmil”

Khaledi: The name of a significant branch of the NaqshbandiSufi order founded by the great sheikh“Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Baghdâdî” (Khalid ibn Husain)

Khawaja or Khwaja: Master, sheikh, spiritual teacher, hodja, Muslim preacher

Khidr: See “Al-Khidr”

Khulafah Rashidun(“The Rightly Guided Caliphs” or “The Righteous Caliphs” = الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in SunniIslam to refer to the first four caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Dynasty. It is a reference to the Sunni tradition. Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) said “Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs” (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). The first five caliphs who ruled after the death of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) are often quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun. The Rashidun were either elected by a council or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the rashidun were:

*      Abu Bakr (632-634 A.D.)

*      Umar ibn al-Khattab, (Umar І) (634-644 A.D.)

*      Uthman ibn Affan (644-656 A.D.)

*      Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661 A.D.)

*      Hasan ibn Ali (661 A.D.) - Hasan ibn Ali, appointed as caliph in 661, is also regarded as a righteous ruler by Sunni Muslims, although his rule was challenged and eventually ended by the Governor of Syria, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

In addition to this, there are several views regarding additional rashidun. Umar bin Abdul Aziz (Umar ІІ), who was one of the Ummayyad caliphs, is sometimes regarded as one of the Rashidun.

Kufr or Khufr: According to Islamic law (sharia), the words, beliefs and acts which make the person kâfir (disbeliever) are called “kufr”. 

Latâif (Lataif-e-sitta): The six subtleties which are qalb (heart), sirr (secrecy), ruh (spirit), khafi (concealed / hidden), akhfa (very or the most concealed), and the eye of the heart. In general, Sufic development involves the awakening in a certain order these spiritual centers of perception that lie dormant in every person. The help of a guide (sheikh) is considered necessary to help activate these centers. The activation of all these "centers" is part of the inner methodology of the Sufi way or "Work". After undergoing this process, the dervish is said to reach a certain type of "perfection" or becomes a Perfect Man. 

Laylat al-Qadr (also known as Shab-e-Qadr = night of Qadr), basically the Night of Decree or Night of Measures, is the anniversary of two very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan. It is the anniversary of the night the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). This night is people’s their fate in the following year is decided and hence Muslims pray for Allah all night long and pray for mercy and salvation. This practice is called Ehyaa (basically meaning "revival").

Madhhab: Anyone of the Sunni schools of thoughts of Islamic Law (of religous cults; of religous denominations). Islamic law is known as the sharia. The sharia is based on the Quran and the Sunna(h). Interpreting the sharia to derive specific rulings (such as how to pray) is known as fiqh, which literally means understanding. A madhhab is a particular tradition of interpreting fiqh. The most famous Sunni schools of law are the followings: 

1. Hanafi School: It was founded by Abu Hanifa  (702-767) He was born in Kufa, Iraq. Muslims of Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Muslim areas in Southern Russia, The Caucasus, parts of The Balkans, Iraq and Turkey follow this school.

2.     Maliki School: It was founded by Malik ibn Anas (d. 795). He developed his ideas in Medina, where he knew some of the last surviving companions of the Prophet or their immediate descendents. His principles are recorded in the Muwatta which has been adopted by most Muslims of Africa except in Lower Egypt, Zanzibar and South Africa. The Maliki legal school is the branch of Sunni that dominates most of the Muslim areas of Africa, except Egypt and the Horn of Africa.

3. Shafi'i School: It was founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (d. 820) who was considered a moderate in most areas. He taught in Iraq and then in Egypt. Muslims in Indonesia, Lower Egypt, Malaysia, Singapore, Somalia, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Yemen follow this school. Ash-Shafi'i placed great emphasis on the Sunna of the Prophet, as embodied in the Hadith, as a source of the sharia.

4. Hanbali School: It was founded by Ahmad bin Hanbal (d. 855) who was born in Baghdad. He learned extensively from ash-Shafi'i. Despite persecution, he held to the doctrine that the Quran was uncreated. This school of law is followed primarily in the Arabian Peninsula.

These four schools are somewhat different from each other, but Sunni Muslims generally consider them all equally valid. There are other Sunni schools of law. However, many are followed by only small numbers of people and are relatively unknown due to the popularity of the four major schools; also, many have died out or were not sufficiently recorded by their followers to survive.

These schools (madhhabs) focus on specific evidence (Shafi'i and Hanbali) or general principles (Hanafi and Maliki) derived from specific evidences. The schools were started by eminent Muslim scholars in the first four centuries of Islam. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting the sharia, there has been little change in the methodology per se. However, as the social and economic environment changes, new fiqh rulings are being made. For example, when tobacco appeared it was declared as 'disliked' because of its smell. When medical information showed that smoking was dangerous, this rule was changed by some scholars to “forbidden”. Current fiqh issues include things like downloading pirated software and cloning. The consensus is that the sharia does not change but fiqh rulings change all the time.

A madhhab is not to be confused with a religious sect. There may be scholars representing all four madhhabs living in larger Muslim communities, and it is up to those who consult them to decide which school they prefer. Many Sunnis advocate that a Muslim should choose a single madhhab and follow it in all matters. However, rulings from another madhhab are considered acceptable as dispensations (rukhsa) in exceptional circumstances. Some Sunnis, however, do not follow any madhhab. Indeed, some Salafis reject strict adherence to any particular school of thought, preferring to use the Quran and the Sunna alone as the primary sources of Islamic law.

Sunni theological traditions: Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not specifically answered in the Quran, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra like the nature of Allah, the existence of human free will, or the eternal existence of the Quran. Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the Quran and the Muslim tradition (Sunna). Among Sunnites, the following were the dominant traditions:

1. Ash'ari: It was founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (873–935). This theology was embraced by Muslim scholars such as al-Ghazali.

* Ash'ariyyah theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Ethics, they say, cannot be derived from human reason: Allah's commands, as revealed in the Quran and the practice of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and his companions (the sunnah, as recorded in the traditions, or hadith), are the source of all morality.

* Regarding the nature of Allah and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu'tazilite position that all Quranic references to Allah as having physical attributes (that is, a body) were metaphorical. Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were "true", since the Quran could not be in error, but that they were not to be understood as implying a crude anthropomorphism.

* Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will. They believe that the Quran is eternal and uncreated.

2. Maturidiyyah: It was founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish groups of Central Asia. One of the groups, the Seljuk Turks, migrated to Turkey, where later the Ottoman Empire was established. Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi school while followers of the Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali schools within the empire followed the Ashari school. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi followers, there can be found the Maturidi creed. 

* Maturidiyyah argues that knowledge of Allah's existence      can be derived through reason.

3. Athariyyah (meaning Textualist) or Hanbali: No specific founder, but Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal played a key historic role in keeping this school alive.

*  This school differs with the Ash'ariyyah in understanding the names and attributes of Allah, but rather affirms all of    Allah's names and attributes as they are found in the Quran and Sunnah (prophetic traditions), with the disclaimer that the "how" of the attribute is not known. They say that Allah is as He described Himself "in a way befitting of His majesty." Thus, regarding verses where Allah is described as having a yad (hand) or wajh (face), the textualists say that Allah is exactly as He described himself in a way befitting of His majesty, without inquiring as to the "how" of these attributes.

* The Athariyyah still believes that Allah does not resemble His creation in any way, as this is also found in the texts. Thus, in the Athari creed, it is still prohibited to imagine an image of Allah in any way. The Athariyyah say that the yad" (hand) of Allah is "unlike any other yad" (since Allah does not resemble His creation in any way) and prohibit imagining what Allah would be like, even though this attribute of a yad is still affirmed.

* This is the view of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said: "The hadiths (regarding the attributes of Allah) should be left as they are... We affirm them, and we do not make any similitude for them. This is what has been agreed upon by the scholars."

Mansur al-Hallaj(Abû al-Mughîth Husayn Mansûr al-Hallâj  858 - March 26, 922 / Hijri 244 ah - 309 ah) was a mystic, writer and teacher of Sufism most famous for his apparent, but disputed, self-proclaimed divinity, his poetry and for his execution for so called heresy at the hands of the Abbasid rulers. Al-Hallaj was born in Persia and was of Persian descent, but wrote all of his works in Arabic. As a youngster he memorized the Quran and would often retreat from worldly pursuits to join other mystics in study. Al-Hallaj later married and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he stayed for one year, facing the mosque, in fasting and total silence. After his stay at the city, he traveled extensively and wrote and taught along the way. He traveled as far as India and Central Asia gaining many followers, many of whom accompanied him on his second and third trips to Mecca. After this period of travel, he settled down in the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. During his early lifetime he was a disciple of Junayd Baghdadi and Amr al-Makki. Among other Sufis, al-Hallaj was an anomaly. Many Sufi masters felt that it was inappropriate to share mysticism with the masses (those unaware of tariqa), yet al-Hallaj openly did so in his writings and through his teachings. He began to make enemies, and the rulers saw him as a threat. This was exacerbated by times when he would fall into trances which he attributed to being in the presence of Allah. During one of these trances, he would utter Ana al-Haqq literally meaning "Truth / The Real / God is me" or "I am Haqq ", which was taken to mean that he was claiming to be Haqq, as al-Haqq is one of the Ninety Nine Beautiful Names of Allah. This sort of utterances led him to a long trial, and subsequent imprisonment for eleven years in a Baghdad prison. In the end, he was tortured and publicly executed (in some accounts he was beheaded and his hands and feet were cut off) by the Abbasid rulers on March 26, 922. Many accounts tell of al-Hallaj's calm demeanor even while he was being tortured, and indicate that he forgave those who had executed him. Rumi wrote on the claim "I am Haqq (God)" of al-Hallaj three centuries later: "People imagine that it is a presumptive claim, whereas it is really a presumptive claim to say "I am the slave of Haqq"; and "I am Haqq" is an expression of great humility. The man who says "I am the slave of Haqq" affirms two existences, his own and Haqq's, but he who says "I am Haqq" has made himself non-existent and has given himself up and says "I am Haqq", that is, "I am naught, He is all; there is no being but Haqq’s (Allah's)." This is the extreme of humility and self-abasement." Similarly, other supporters have interpreted his statement as meaning, "Haqq has emptied me of everything but Himself." For most, especially legalistic Muslims tawhid(the unity of Allah) meant that Allah was inaccessible to man. Whereas al-Hallaj believed that it was only Allah who could pronounce the tawhid.  

Marifa / Marifah: Gnosis; Marifa (Arabic: المعرفة) literally means knowledge. The term is used by Sufi Muslims to describe mystical intuitive knowledge, knowledge of spiritual truth as reached through ecstatic experiences rather than revealed or rationally acquired. A person realizing marifa (divine being) is imperceptible to others, who are without such knowledge. The following words are narrated in books concerning Sufism as a hadith qudsi (saying inspired by and received from Allah): “Oh humankind! One who knows his self also knows Me; one who knows Me seeks Me, and one who seeks Me certainly finds Me; one who finds me attains all his aspirations and expectations, and prefers none over Me. Oh humankind! Be humble that you can have knowledge of Me. One who renounces his self finds me. In order to know Me, renounce your own self. A heart which has not flourished and been perfected is blind.” Marifa is the fourth and the highest spiritual station in the way (tariqa). The stage of marifa is a station unperceivable by human minds and hearts, and therefore, this situation can not be communicated to anyone, or through anything and not even through any corporeal means. 

Mawlânâ Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, also known as Mawlânâ Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273): He is known to the English-speaking world simply as Rumi. He was a 13th-century poet, Sunni Islamic jurist, and theologian. Rumi is a descriptive name meaning "the Roman" since he lived most of his life in an area called Rum because it was once ruled by the Byzantine Empire. According to tradition, Rumi was born in Balkh, Bactria, in contemporary Afghanistan. Due to quarrels between different dynasties in Khorāsān, opposition to the Khwarizmid Shahs who were considered devious by Bahā ud-Dīn Walad (Rumi's father) or fear of the impending Mongol cataclysm, his father decided to migrate westwards. Rumi's family traveled west, first performing the Hajj and eventually settling in the Anatolian city Konya (capital of the Seljuk Sultanate, now located in Turkey), where he lived most of his life and profoundly affected the culture of the area. He lived most of his life under the Seljuk Sultanate, where he produced his works and died in 1273 CE. He was buried in Konya and his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. Following his death, his followers and his son Sultan Walad founded the Mawlawīyah Sufi Order, also known as the Order of the Whirling Dervishes, famous for its Sufi dance known as the samāh ceremony. Although Rumi's works were written generally in Persian, Rumi's importance is considered to transcend national and ethnic borders. His original works are widely read in their original language across the Persian-speaking world. Translations of his works are very popular in South Asian, Turkic, Arab, and Western countries. His poetry has influenced Persian literature as well as the literature of the Urdu, Bengali, Arabic and Turkish languages. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats; BBC News has described him as the "most popular poet in America".  

His Life: Rumi was born in Khorāsān, possibly in or near the city of Balkh. Rumi's father was Bahā ud-Dīn Walad, a theologian, jurist and a mystic from Balkh, who was also known during his lifetime as Sultan al-Ulama or "Sultan of the Scholars". His mother was Mu'mina Khātūn. When the Mongols invaded Central Asia sometime between 1215 and 1220, Baha ud-Din Walad, with his whole family and a group of disciples, set out westwards. On the road to Anatolia, Rumi encountered one of the most famous sheikhs and mystic poets, “Attar”, in the city of Nishapur, located in the province of Khorāsān. Attar immediately recognized Rumi's spiritual eminence. He saw the father walking ahead of the son and said, "Here comes a sea followed by an ocean." He gave the boy his Asrārnāma, a book about the entanglement of the soul in the material world. This meeting had a deep impact on the eighteen-year-old Rumi, and later on became the inspiration for his works. From Nishapur, Walad and his entourage set out for Baghdad, meeting many of the scholars and Sufis of the city. From there they went to Baghdad and Hejaz and performed the pilgrimage at Mecca. The migrating caravan then passed through Damascus, Malatya, Erzincan, Sivas, Kayseri and Nigde. They finally settled in Karaman for seven years; Rumi's mother and brother both died there. In 1225, Rumi married Gowhar Khatun in Karaman. They had two sons: Sultan Walad and Ala-eddin Chalabi. When his wife died, Rumi married again and had a son, Amir Alim Chalabi, and a daughter, Malakeh Khatun. On 1 May1228, most likely as a result of the insistent invitation of 'Alā' ud-Dīn Key-Qobād, ruler of Anatolia, Baha' ud-Din came and finally settled in Konya in Anatolia within the westernmost territories of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Baha' ud-Din became the head of a madrassa (religious school) and when he died, Rumi, aged twenty-five, inherited his position. One of Baha' ud-Din's students, Sayyed Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Termazi, continued to train Rumi in the religious and mystical doctrines of Rumi's father. For nine years, Rumi practiced Sufism as a disciple of Burhan ud-Din until the latter died in 1240 or 1241. Rumi's public life then began: he became a teacher who preached in the mosques of Konya and taught his adherents in the madrassah. During this period, Rumi also travelled to Damascus and is said to have spent four years there. It was his meeting with the dervish Shams-e Tabrizi on 15 November1244 that completely changed Rumi's life. Shams had traveled throughout the Middle East. On the night of 5 December1248, as Rumi and Shams were talking, Shams was called to the back door. He went out, never to be seen again. It is believed that Shams was murdered with the connivance of Rumi's son, 'Ala' ud-Din. Rumi's love for, and his bereavement at the death of, Shams found their expression in an outpouring of lyric poems, Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi. He himself went out searching for Shams and journeyed again to Damascus. There, he realized:

Why should I seek?

I am the same as He.

His essence speaks through me.
I have been looking for myself!

For more than ten years after meeting Shams, Mawlânâ had been spontaneously composing ghazals, and these had been collected in the Divan-i Kabir or Diwan Shams Tabrizi. Rumi found another companion in Salah ud-Din-e Zarkub, a goldsmith. After Salah ud-Din's death, Rumi's scribe and favorite student, Hussam-ed-Din Chalabi, assumed the role of Rumi's companion. One day, the two of them were wandering through the Meram grape yards outside Konya when Hussam described to Rumi an idea he had had: "If you were to write a book like the Ilāhīnāma of Sanai or the Mantiq ut-Tayr of 'Attar, it would become the companion of many troubadours. They would fill their hearts from your work." Rumi smiled and took out a piece of paper on which were written the opening eighteen lines of his Masnavi, beginning with:

Listen to the reed and the tale it tells,
How it sings of separation...

Hussam implored Rumi to write more. Rumi spent the next twelve years of his life in Anatolia dictating the six volumes of this masterwork, the Masnavi, to Hussam. Rumi died on 17 December1273 in Konya; his body was interred beside that of his father, and a splendid shrine, the Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb), was erected over his place of burial. His epitaph reads:

When we are dead, seek not our tomb in the earth, but find it in the hearts of men.

His Teachings: The general theme of Rumi's thought, like that of other mystic and Sufi poets, is essentially that of the concept of tawhīd – union with his beloved (the primal root) from which/whom he has been cut off and become aloof – and his longing and desire to restore it. The Masnavi weaves fables, scenes from everyday life, Quranic revelations and exegesis, and metaphysics into a vast and intricate tapestry. Rumi is considered an example of Insan-e Kâmil (Perfect Man), the perfected or completed human being. In the East, it is said of him that “he was not a prophet - but surely, he has brought a scripture". His teachings became the base for the order of the Mevlevi which his son Sultan Walad organized. Rumi encouraged samah, turning or doing the sacred dance. In the Mevlevi tradition, samāh represents a mystical journey of spiritual ascent through mind and love to the Perfect One. In this journey, the seeker symbolically turns towards the truth, grows through love, abandons the ego, finds the truth, and arrives at the Perfect. The seeker then returns from this spiritual journey, with greater maturity, to love and to be of service to the whole of creation without discrimination with regard to beliefs, races, classes, and nations. In the Masnavi, Rumi describes in detail the universal message of love:

Lover's nationality is separate from all other religions
The lover's religion and nationality is the Beloved (Allah)

The lover’s cause is separate from all other causes
Love is the astrolabe of Allah's mysteries. 

Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Baghdâdî = Mawlânâ Khalid al-Baghdadi = Khalid ibn Husain (1779 - 1827): Hadhrat Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Baghdâdî, born in Shehrezur, Karadağ an area near to Sulaymaniye in northern Iraq. His full name was Khalid ibn Husain. He was a NaqshbandiSufiSheikh and the founder of a significant branch of the NaqshbandiSufi order -named Khaledi after him- that had and still has a profound impact not only on his country but also on many other regions of the western Islamic world. Mawlânâ Khâlid acquired the nesba (nickname) “Baghdadi” through his frequent stays in Baghdad. His father was a Qaderi Sufi who was popularly known as Pir Mika'il Shesh-angosht, and his mother also came from a celebrated Sufi family. His title was “Uthmani” because he is a descendant of Sayyidina “Uthman ibn Affan”, the third caliph of Islam. He was famous in poetry. When he was fifteen years of age he took asceticism as his creed, hunger as his horse, wakefulness as his means, seclusion as his friend, and energy as his light. He studied the sciences of mathematics, philosophy and logic as well as the principles of jurisprudence. He studied the works of Ibn Hajar, as-Suyuti, and al-Haythami. He memorized the commentary on Quran by Baydawi. He memorized the Quran according to the fourteen different ways of recitation, and became very famous everywhere for this. He then traveled to other centers of religious study, concentrating on logic and kalam. He was able to find solutions for even the most difficult questions in jurisprudence. Next he came to Baghdad, where he astounded the established ulema with his learning and bested them in debates on many topics. He then entered seclusion, leaving everything he had studied behind, engaging in virtuous actions and much dhikr. In 1805 Mawlânâ Khalid decided to perform hajj (make the pilgrimage) and to visit Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) in 1220 (h. 1806). The journey he undertook as a result turned his aspirations to Sufism. On his way he stopped in Medina for a few days and encountered an anonymous saintly Yemeni, who prophetically warned not to condemn hastily anything he might see in Mecca apparently contradicting the sharia. Once in Mecca, he went to the Kaaba where he saw a man sitting with his back to the sacred structure and facing him. Forgetting his admonition, he inwardly reproved the man. But the man said "do you not know that the worth of the believer is greater in Allah's eyes than the worth of the Kaaba?" Penitent and overwhelmed, Mawlânâ Khalid asked for forgiveness and begged the stranger to accept him as a disciple. He refused, telling him that his master awaited him in India. After the hajj he returned to Solaymaniya and his duties at the madrasa but was inwardly agitated by the desire to find his destined master. He was always looking for someone to show him the Path of gnosis. Finally, in 1809, an Indian dervish (one of the caliphs of the spiritual pole Abdullah ad-Dehlawi) by the name of Mirza Rahim-Allah 'Azimabadi visited Sulaymaniyah and. When they met, Mawlânâ Khalid asked him about the perfect guide who would show him the way (to Allah) and Sheikh Mirza told him, "There is one perfect sheikh who observes the character of the Prophet and is a guide in the gnosis (marifa). Come to his service in Jehanabad (India) for he told me before I left, 'You are going to meet someone, bring him back with you.' ". Up on his recommendation, Mawlânâ Khalid departed immediately for India and his journey lasted about a year. On his way to India, he went to Lahore, where he met with Sheikh Thana'ullah an-Naqshbandi and asked for his prayers. When he reached Delhi, he asked initiation from the Naqshbandi Sheikh Shah Abdullah Dehlavi and took it. He served in the zawiya (mosque-school) of the sheikh. He made rapid progress in the struggle against his “self” and he completeed all stages of spiritual wayfaring as required by the Naqshbandi's and that in a year he attained the highest degree of sainthood (al-walaya al-kobra), which is marifa. He was then sent back to Sulaymaniyah by Shah Abdullah, with full written authority to act as his khalifa in western Asia and to grant initiation not only in the Naqshbandi but also in the Qaderi, Sohrawardi, Kobrawi and Chishti orders. After enduring hostilities from rival so-called sheikhs in Solaymaniya, he travelled to Baghdad and Damascus where he preached the Naqshbandi way with considerable success. He remained in Damascus for the remainder of his life and he died in June 1827. He was buried on one of the foothills of Jabal Qasiyun, on the edge of the Kurdish quarter of Damascus. Later a building was erected over the tomb, comprising a zawia (literally “corner”; a small dervish lodge or dargah) and a library which are still frequented. Mawlânâ Khalid is credited with establishing the Khalidi, a new branch of the Naqshbandi order. Much of his significance lies in his giving renewed emphasis to traditional tennets and practices of the Naqshbandi, notably adherence to the sharia and sunna(h) and avoidance of vocal dhikr in preference of silent performance. Some elements of his teachings were debatable, even among other Naqshbandi branches, foremost being his interpretation of the practice of rabeta - the linking, in the imagination, of the heart of the murid with that of the preceptor (sheikh)-. He proclaimed that rabeta was to be practiced exclusively with reference to the sheikhs. He ordered them not to cry on his behalf, and that they feed the poor for the love of Allah and dedicate the charity in his behalf. He ordered them to write nothing on his grave except, "This is the grave of the stranger, Khalid." He called his family and advised them, "I am going to pass away on Friday." Before the dawn prayer he got up and prayed then entered his room and raised his hands and prayed, "Whoever the plague touches let it strike me instead of him and spare everyone in Damascus." Thursday came and all his caliphs entered. Ismail ash-Shirwani asked him, "How are you feeling?" He said, "Allah has answered my prayer. I will take all the plague from the people of Sham (Damascus) and I alone will die on Friday." He passed on, as he had predicted, on the 13th of the Islamic month Dhul Qi'da, 1242 H. / 1827 AD. It is said that more than 300.000 people prayed the funeral prayer over Sheikh Khalid. The next day, Saturday, it was as if a miracle had happened in Sham, the plague immediately stopped and there were no further deaths. Permission for mastery of the order after him had been given to his 300 successors (caliphs). Through these caliphs the Khalidi branch of the Naqshbandi order was to become one of the most widespread in the Middle East spreading to Turkey, the Balkans, SouthernRussia, Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Egypt and even to Indonesia. The order however, remained most popular in Turkey where almost all of the current Naqshbandi leaders in Turkey today trace their history through Khalid al-Baghdadi.

Millet: (1) The adherents of a particular religious creed, denomination, or sect.  (2) Nation, people, everybody. (3) Any specific group of people (ex: womankind). (4) The people, the public. 

Muhammad (SAW): Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) ibn Abdullah (b. 570 Mecca – d. June 8, 632 Medina) is the central human figure of the religion of Islam and is the messenger and prophet of Allah, the last and the greatest law-bearer in a series of prophets of Islam. He is the restorer of the uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islam) of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus (Isa) and other prophets of Islam.

Born in 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at a young age and was brought up under the care of his uncle. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. It was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from Allah. Three years after this event Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "Allah is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islam) is the only way (din) acceptable to Allah, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of Allah, in the same vein as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and other prophets in Islam.

Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some tribes of Mecca; he was treated harshly and so were his followers. To prevent persecution Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and his followers migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622 CE. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) managed to unite the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand, conquered Mecca. In 632 a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) fell ill and died. By the time of his death most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam and he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Muslim religious polity.

The revelations (or Ayats, lit. "Signs of Allah"), which Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, or “the word of Allah”, around which religion of Islam is based. Besides the Quran, Hadhrat Muhammad’s (SAW) life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase “SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam (SAW) = May Allah bless him and grant him peace” for Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and “Alayhis salaam (AS) = peace be upon him (PBUH)” for other prophets whenever their names are mentioned. 

Mukammeel(in Turkish: mükemmil): A kâmil (perfect man) who also has the ability and the authority to make the others kâmil (perfect); the servant of Allah through whom He discloses his attribute known as “ar-Rashid = The Righteous Teeacher”; murshid; sheikh.

Muminis an Arabic Islamic term frequently referenced in the Quran, meaning "believer" or “faithful”, and denoting a Muslim that has complete submission to the will of Allah, and has perfect faith (iman) firmly established in his heart. In the Quran (49:14) it is stated: “The dwellers of the desert say: We believe. Say: You do not believe but rather say, We submit; and faith has not yet entered into your hearts; and if you obey Allah and His Apostle, He will not diminish aught of your deeds; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”. That verse makes a distinction between a Muslim and a mumin (believer). Also, it is said in Quran (4:136): “O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and the Book (the Quran) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him), and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.” That verse addresses the believers, exhorting them to believe, implying multiple stages of belief.

Murid(Arabic: مريد) is a Sufi term meaning “committed one”. It refers to a person who is committed to a teacher (murshids, sheikh) in the spiritual path of Sufism. It also means "willpower" or "self-esteem,” Also known as a Salik (Arabic: سالك), a murid is an initiate into the path of Sufism / Allah. The initiation process is known as ahd (Arabic: عهد) or Bai'ath. Before initiation a Murid is guided and taught by a Murshid or Pir who must first accept the initiate as his or her disciple

Murshid (Arabic: مرشد) is Arabic for "guide" or "teacher". Particularly in Sufism it refers to a Sufi teacher (master). The path of Sufism starts when a student takes an oath of allegiance (Bai'ath) with a teacher. After this oath, the student is called a Murid. The Murshid's role is to guide and instruct the disciple on the Sufi path, by general lessons (called Suhbas / sohbet) and individual guidance. A Murshid usually has authorisations to be a teacher for one (or more) Tariqas (paths). A tariqa may have more than one Murshid at a time. A Murshid is accorded that status by his murshid (Sheikh) by way of Khilafath: the process in which the Sheikh identifies one of his disciples as his successor, the Khalifa. A Murshid can have more than one khalifa. Pir and Sheikh are two of the other words that refer to a murshid. 

Murshid al-kâmil: See “Al-murshid al-kâmil”.

Mushrik: He who commits “shirk”. 

Muslim:A Muslim is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form is Muslimah. Literally, the word means "one who submits (to Allah)". Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive. Muslims believe that there is only one God, translated in Arabic as Allah. Muslims believe that Islam existed long before Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and that the religion had evolved with time from the time of Hadhrat Adam until the time of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and was completed with the revelation of verse 3 of Surah al-Maeda: “This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” The Quran describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim: Adam, Noah (Nuh), Moses (Musa) and Jesus (Isa) and his apostles. The Quran states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to Allah, preached his message and upheld his values. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Quran, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus "We believe in Allah; and you be our witness that we submit and obey”.

Nafs is an Arabic word meaning the individual “self” or “psyche”. It is first among the six Lataif (cleanliness) or Lataif-e-sitta. In Sufi teachings, it means more of “false ego”. When Sufis talk about opposing nafs, they mean nafs ammara that is explained hereafter: 

Stages of nafs:

There are seven stages of nafs or egos that you encounter as you attempt to master them.  

1. Nafs-i-ammara (The Commanding-Self): In its primitive stage, the ego tells one to commit evil. This is what Sufis refer to when they speak of fighting Nafs. The prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) said after returning from a war: "We now return from the small struggle (Jihad Asghar) to the big struggle (Jihad Akbar)". His companions asked, "Oh prophet of Allah, what is the big struggle?" He replied, "The struggle against nafs". The most important attributes of the nafs-i-ammara are: 

*False Pride (Takabbur)

*Greed (Hirs)

*Envy (Hasad)

*Lust (Shahwah)

*Back Biting (Gheebah)

* Stinginess (Bokhl)

*Malice (Keena)  

2. Nafs-i-lawwama (The Regretful-Self): This is the stage of awakening. On this level the conscience is awakened and the self accuses one for listening to one’s ego. One repents and asks for forgiveness, but falls back into bad behaviour. Here the Nafs is inspired by your heart, sees the results of your actions, agrees with your brain, sees your weaknesses, and aspires to perfection. 

3. Nafs-i-mulhama (The Inspired-Self): This is the stage of action. On this level one becomes more firm in listening to one’s conscience, but is not yet surrendered completely. Once you have seen your weaknesses and have set your targets, this ego inspires you to do good deeds and to be on the plus side. Sufi says that it is important that whenever you think of good, you must immediately act upon it. The followings can be accepted as some of the characteristics of the nafs-i mulhama:

* Ta'jeel or Swiftness: A good deed must be done immediately and there should be no laziness.

* Tahqeer or Contempt: You must look at your good acts with contempt otherwise you will become self-righteous

* Ikhfa or Secrecy: You must keep your good acts secret otherwise people will praise you and it will make you self righteous  

4. Nafs-i-mutma'inna (The Contented-Self): This is the ideal stage of ego for sufis. On this level one is firm in one’s faith and leaves bad manners behind. The soul becomes tranquil, at peace. At this stage sufis will have relieved themselves of all materialism and worldly problems and be satisfied with the will of Allah. 

5. Nafs-i-radiyya (The Pleased-Self): On this level one is pleased with whatever comes from Allah and doesn’t live in the past or future, but in the moment. One thinks always: ‘Ilahi Anta Maqsudi wa ridhaka matlubi’. One always sees oneself as weak and in need of Allah. 

6. Nafs-i-mardiyya (The Pleasing-Self): On this level the spirit and the soul (self) in man have made peace. One is soft and tolerant with people and has good akhlak (good manners). 

7. Nafs-i-safiyya (The Pure-Self): On this level one is dressed in the attributes of the Insan Kâmil, the perfect man, who is completely surrendered and inspired by Allah. One is in full agreement with the Will of Allah. 

Najmuddin-e Kubra is the founder of the Sufi order (Tariqa) Kubrawiya. He was a 13th century Sufi from Khwarezmia. Among his twelve famous students one can mention Najmeddin Razi, Sayfeddin Bakhezri and Baha'uddin Walad, father of Mawlânâ Jalaluddin Rumi

Namâz (نماز) is the word for prayer used by Muslims speaking Indo-Iranian, South Slavic and Turkic languages, comes from an Indo-Europeanroot meaning 'to bow, or prostrate'. A Muslim worshipper is a musallī (مصلى) and the prayer mat, a musalla. Namâz is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, observed by Muslims in supplication to Allah. Prayer is performed five times a day: At dawn (fajr), noon (dhuhr), in the afternoon (asr), at sunset (maghrib) and nightfall (isha'a). It is obligatory for all Muslims once they have reached puberty.

Naqshbandi: (1) A disciple in the tariqa of Naqshbandiyyah. (2) Sobriquet (nickname) of Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318 /1389), the founder of the Sufi path Naqshbandiyyah (see: Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari). (3) The name of one of the major Sufi orders (tariqas) of Islam founded by Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari; see also “Naqshbandiyyah” 

Naqshbandiyyah is one of the major tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. The order is considered by some to be a "sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of Allah) rather than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. The Naqshbandi order is also notable as it is the only Sufi order that claims to trace its spiritual lineage (silsilah = chain) to the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) through Abu Bakr, the first Caliph. In contrast, most other turuq (Sufi paths) trace their lineage to Ali, Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) cousin and son-in-law and the Fourth Caliph. The word Naqshbandi نقشبندی is Persian, taken from the name of the founder of the order, Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Some have said that the translation means "related to the image-maker," some also consider it to mean "pattern maker" rather than "image maker," and interpret "Naqshbandi" to mean "Reformer of Patterns", and others consider it to mean "Way of the Chain" or "Golden Chain.". Shah Hadhrat Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukharisaid: “The Naqshbandi School is the easiest and simplest way for the student to understand tawhid. It urges its followers to seek a state of complete worship of Allah both publicly and privately by keeping the complete code of conduct of the Prophetic Sunna. It encourages people to keep to the strictest modes of worship and to abandon exemptions. It is also free from all innovations and deviations. It does not demand of its followers’ perpetual hunger or wakefulness. That is how the Naqshbandiyya has managed to remain free from the excesses of the ignorant and the charlatans. In sum, we say that our way is the mother of all tariqas and the guardian of all spiritual trusts. It is the safest, wisest, and clearest way. It is the purest drinking-station, the most distilled essence. The Naqshbandiyyah is innocent from any attack because it keeps the Sunna of the beloved Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW)”

Naqshî or Naqshbandi Silsilah: Chain (spiritual lineage) of sheikhs in Naqshbandi Tariqa starting from Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), followed by Abu Bakr, the first Caliph  and the others.

Pir[Persian: (پیر) literally "old (person)"] is a title for a Sufi master. They are also referred to as a Sheikh, which is Arabic for Old Man. The title is often translated into English as "saint". In Sufism Pir's role is to guide and instruct his disciples on the Sufi path. This is often done by general lessons (called Suhbas / sohbet) and individual guidance. Other words that refer to a Pir include, Murshid (Arabic: مرشد, meaning "guide" or "teacher"), Sheikh and Sarkar (Persian / Hindi / Urdu word meaning Master, Lord). The path of Sufism starts when a student takes an oath of allegiance with a teacher called Bai'ath or Bay'ah (Arabic word meaning Transaction). After that, the student is called a Murid (Arabic word meaning committed one). A Pir usually has authorizations to be a teacher for one (or more) Tariqahs (paths). A Tariqah may have more than one Pir at a time. A Pir is accorded that status by his Sheikh by way of Khilafat or Khilafah (Arabic word meaning succession). Khilafat is the process in which a Sheikh identifies one of his disciples as his successor (khalifah). A Pir can have more than one khalifah. 

Qiyas(Arabicقياس): In SunniIslamic jurisprudence, the qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning in which the teachings of the Quran are compared and contrasted with those of the Hadith, ie. in order to make an analogy with a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. As a result of this method, the ruling of the Sunna and the Quranmay be used as a means to solve or provide a response to a new problem that may arise. Sunni Islam uses Qiyas as the fourth source, whereas Shi'a Islam uses 'Aql (intellect). 

Quraishor Quraysh (Arabic: قريشTurkish: Kureyş) was the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of the religion of Islam. It was the tribe to which the IslamicProphet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) belonged, as well as the tribe that led the initial opposition to his message. 

Quran: literally "the recitation"; Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Quran is the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, and the original Arabic text is the final revelation of Allah. Quran was revealed to Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) by the angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) over a period of 23 years. The Quran purports to be the main miracle of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), thus its inimitability validates his status as a prophet. Quran is the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam, the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (Psalms) and the Injeel (Gospel). The aforementioned books are not explicitly included in the Quran, but are recognized therein. The Quran also refers to many events from Jewish and Christian scriptures, some of which are retold in comparatively distinctive ways from the Bible and the Torah. The Quran itself expresses that it is the book of guidance. Therefore it places emphasis on the moral significance of an event rather than its narrative sequence. It teaches that natural and supernatural events are signs of Allah. The Quran was written down by Hadhrat Muhammad's (SAW) companions while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was oral. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized in the time of Uthman, the third caliph.

Qutub or Qutb (Arabic: قطب) or gavs is a MuslimSufi word indicating a high rank in the hierarchy of awliya (saints; spiritual masters); chief of a group of awliya. In Arabic it literally means "pivot, hub, or axis".  Qutb’ul aktab or gavs’ul azam is the highest ranked leader of awliya (saints).  This post is the highest station a wali (saint) can reach. In mystical literature, such as the writings of al–Tirmidhi, Abd al–Razzaq and Ibn al–‘Arabi (d. 1240), Qutub or Qutb refers to the most perfect human being (al-insan al-kâmil) who is thought to be the universal leader of all saints (awliya), to mediate between the divine and the human and whose presence is deemed necessary for the existence of the world. The state of a qutub is qutubiyyah. Qutb’ul Aktab or gavs’ul azam is believed to be responsible from governing the universe (macrocosm). When considered from the point of view of his spiritual station, he is generally called as “Qutb’ul Aktab” and specially when he is asked for assistance, he is called as “gavs” meaning “he who helps those in need” or “gavs’ul azam = the leader of all gavs = the biggest gavs”. When the word qutub or gavs is used alone, it means Qutb’ul Aktab or gavs’ul azam. [However for some sufis, qutub is like “president” and gavs is like “prime minister”. And, there is only one qutub and one gavs on any time.] One can not reach this station through worshipping or asceticism. It is obtained only through the bestowal of Allah. According to sufis,   qutub or qutb’ul aktab or gavs or gavs’ul azam is the place where can be seen the reality (non manifest side, inner dimension) of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). In other words, he is the mirror of the walaya (sanctity; friendship; the state or position of being wali) of the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). He is like the heart of the universe. Universe turns around the Qutb’ul Aktab of the time just as the mill-stone turns around the spindle (pivot, axis, hub). All creatures in the universe take their lives (spirits) from him. The Angel Gabriel is his speach or his spirit’s speaking side. The Angel Michael is his attracting or appealing power.  And Azrail, the angel of death, is his releasing (taking away) power. He governs and uses all of the creatures in the universe as he wills. His governing or using the creatures of the univers derives (stems) from or based on his knowledge and his knowledge derives from the Knowledge of Allah. With his outward (manifest) dimension he governs the outward dimension of the Universe and with his inward (non-manifest) dimension he governs the inward dimension of the Universe.  

Qutubiyyah: See “Qutub”

Rabeta(In Turkish: Râbıta): The linking, in the imagination, of the heart of the murid with that of the preceptor (sheikh, murshid);  imagining his sheikh as much and long as possible; meditating constanly the appaerance and attributes of his sheikh; trying to contemplate the attributes (noble chracter traits) of Allah in the body of his sheikh who is accepted as the mirror of the Prophet and Allah; trying to know Allah by first knowing his sheikh whose body is the mirror of Allah. The word “rabeta” is also used instead of sheikh (murshid, pir) = the one who links the spirit of the disciple with that of Allah = He who makes the spirit of the disciple “one” and “the same”with that of Allah.

Ramadan(Arabic: رمضان) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims do not eat or drink anything and don’t have sexual intercourse from true dawn until sunset. Fasting is meant to teach the person patience, sacrifice and humility. Ramadan is a time to fast for the sake of Allah, and to offer more prayer than usual. During Ramadan, Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance and help in refraining from everyday evils, and try to purify themselves through self-restraint and good deeds.

Sahaba or
(Arabic: الصحابة) means "companions". They were the companions of the last ProphetHadhrat Muhammad (SAW). This form is plural; the singular is masculine sahabiyy, feminine sahabiyyah. Who is sahabiyy? Most Sunnis regard anyone who, in the state of faith, saw Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) to be a sahabiyy. Lists of prominent companions usually run to fifty or sixty names, being the people most closely associated with Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). Muhammad bin Ahmad Efendi (death 1622), who is also known with the sobriquet "Nişancızâde", the author of the book entitled Mir’ât-ı Kâinât (in Turkish), states as follows: "Once a male or female Muslim has seen Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) only for a short time, no matter whether he/she is a child or an adult, he/she is called a Sahaba with the provision of dying as a believer; the same rule applies to blind Muslims who have talked with the Prophet at least once. If a disbeliever sees the Prophet and then joins the Believers after the demise of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), he is not a sahaba; nor is a person called a sahaba if he converts from Islam to another religion although he had seen the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) as a Muslim. A person who converts from Islam to another religion after being a sahaba and then becomes a believer again after the demise of Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), is a sahaba."

Sahabiyy and sahabiyyah: See “Sahaba”

Salât [Arabic: صلاة; pl. salawât (Quranic Arabic: صلوة = salawah); Persian, Bengali, Urdu and Turkish: namâz = نماز (the Islamic prayer)] is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, observed by Muslims in supplication to Allah. Prayer is performed five times a day: At dawn (fajr), noon (dhuhr), in the afternoon (asr), at sunset (maghrib) and nightfall (isha'a). It is obligatory for all Muslims once they have reached puberty

Salih Baba or Salih Usta: There was a spiritual traveller called “Salih Usta” (1846 / 1906) in Erzincan / Turkey. He was a locksmith.  One day in the years around 1900, in the dargah of the Sheikh Piri Sâmi, the poems of the famous mystic poets such as Hadhrat Yunus Emre, Niyazi Mısrî and Kuddusî Baba were being read. And Aktar Hacı Ibrahim Ağa, one of the disciples, said to the Sheikh: “O Master! I wish there were some poets among the previous exalted disciples in our silsila. Thus we could now read their poems and be enlightened by them. And you would perhaps write some explanations for those poems!” The Sheikh Piri Sami answered him, pointing his finger to Salih Usta who was trying to find some place to hide himself in the rear lines of the room: “My Son! This is a matter of himma and zuhurat.  Even our Salih can read poems spontaneously”. Salih was an illiterate man and a modest (non-prominent, non-outstanding) disciple. As soon as this was said, the heart of Salih Usta was filled with strange flow of incoming thoughts which he didn’t know and had never heard of. And all of a sudden, he started to say poems extemporaneously and reached to the spiritual station of fanâ (nothingness / nonety / non-existance) at the same time. His reading poems extemporaneously lasted 40 days and when the Sheikh (Piri Sami) ordered him “Salih! That is enough”, he stopped involuntarily reading poems which he had also started to say involuntarily.

Salih Baba Divanı: The Diwan of Salih Usta; Salih Usta’s poems (which he was made to say involuntarily being disposed of or being remote-controlled by his Sheikh Piri Sami) was collected under the name of “Salih Baba Divanı” (Collection of the Poems of Salih Baba). The meaning of Salih Baba is “Father Salih” and Salih Baba was the nickname of Salih Usta

Sâlik: A man travelling in the Sufi path; traveller; disciple.

SAW and AS: SAW is short for Arabic phrase “SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam” meaning “May Allah bless him and grant him peace” and AS is short for “Alayhis Salaam” meaning “Peace be upon him = PBUH”. “Peace be upon him” is a phrase that practicing Muslims often say after saying (or hearing) the name of a prophet of Islam. There are two variants of this phrase in Arabic:

1. Alayhis salaam (AS) = Peace be upon him: This expression follows after naming any prophet (other than Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (PBUH), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. Jibreel, Mikaeel, etc.)

2. SallAllahu Alayhi wa sallam (SAW) = May Allah bless him and grant him peace: This expression follows specifically after saying the name of the last Prophet of Islam, Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). 

In Arabic, these salutations are called salawât, and are abbreviated with SAW (in accordance with the Arabic words sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam). However in English, “SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam” is generally translated as “Peace be upon him = PBUH” just like Alayhis salaam (AS).

Evidences for asking the blessings on Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW):

Quran (33/56): 

*      "Surely Allah sends His Salah (blessings) on the Prophet (Hadhrat Muhammad SAW), and also His angels (do so). Oh you who believe! Send (call for) your Salah (blessings) on him (i.e. ask Allah to bless him)  and greet (salute) him with the Islamic way of greeting (i.e. as-Salaam Alaykum, which means peace be upon you)"


*      "The misser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned, then he does not send the Salah upon me." This was recorded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad. 

*      At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said:

"The Messenger of Allah said, May he be humiliated, the man in whose presence I am mentioned and he does not send Salah upon me; may he be humiliated, the man who sees the month of Ramadan come and go, and he is not forgiven; may he be humiliated, the man whose parents live to old age and they do not cause him to be granted admittance to Paradise." At-Tirmidhi said that this hadith was "Hasan gharib" (Good but only reported once). 

*      Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Tirmidhi, and Sunan an-Nasa'i, recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said: Whoever sends one salah upon me, Allah will send ten upon him." 

*      Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal reported in his Musnad that the companion of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), Abu Talhah al-Ansari said: "One morning the Messenger of Allah was in a cheerful mood and looked happy. They said, 'Oh Messenger of Allah, this morning you are in a cheerful mood and look happy.' He said, Of course, just now someone [an angel] came to me from my Lord [Allah] and said, 'Whoever among your Ummah sends Salah upon you, Allah will record for him ten good deeds and will erase for him ten evil deeds, and will raise his status by ten degrees, and will return his greeting with something similar to it.' " The isnad (chain of narrators) of this hadith is good.

*      It was reported by Razin ibn Mu'awiyah in his book Jami al-Usool that Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) said: “A supplication remains suspended between heaven and earth and does not ascend any further until a person sends Salah on me. Do not treat me like a spare water container, send Salah upon me at the beginning of your supplication, at the end, and in the middle.”

Sawm(Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means "to abstain mainly from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse during the day-time". The observance of sawm during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month only.

Say or saaee: Exertion, ardour, effort, endeavour, struggle to perform good deeds

Shah: Sheikh, leader, head, king

The Shahada(from the Arabic verb shahida = to testify): Shahada is among the conditions of the Islamiccreed. The Shahada is the Muslimdeclaration of belief in Allah and acceptance of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) as his prophet. The declaration of Shahada reads: “La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammadur-Rasul Allah” which is translated into English as “There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”. This declaration is called the Kalima, which literally means "word." Recitation of the Shahadah is the most important of the Five Pillars of Islam for Muslims. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam do so by a public recitation of the creed. 

Sharia / sharia(h) / sharia(t) (Arabic: شريعة): Islamic religious law (The body of formally established sacred law in Islam);  the orders of Allah established in the Quran and Sunna;  the term literally means "way" or "path to the water source"; Islam or sharia draws no distinction between religious and secular life, and hence sharia covers not only religious rituals and the administration of the faith, but every aspect of day-to-day life including politics, economics, banking, business, contracts, family, sexuality, hygiene, and social issues. In other words, it is the legal framework within which the public and private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the domain. Sharia is based on the Quran (the religious text of Islam), hadith [sayings and doings of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) and his companions], ijma (consensus), qiyas (reasoning by analogy).

Sheikh: Guide leading the souls of his disciples (spiritual travelers) to the essence of Allah; spiritual master (teacher and leader) of a group of dervishes in Sufi path; one of the spiritual trainers / teachers taking part in the chain of sheikhs reaching up to the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW); king; Shah; murshid.

Shirkis the Islamic concept of the sin of polytheism specifically, but in a more general way refers to worshipping other than Allah, associating partners with him, giving his characteristics to other than him, or not believing in his characteristics. Within Islam, Major shirk is a forgivable sin if one repents from it while one is alive, but according to Islamic texts, anyone who dies upon this sin will never enter paradise. It is the vice that is opposed to the virtue of tawhid, literally "declaring [that which is] one", often translated into the English term monotheism.

Etymology: The word shirk is derived from the Arabic root Sh-R-K. This consonantal root has the general meaning of "to share". In the context of the Quran, the particular sense of "sharing as a partner" is usually understood, so that polytheism is "attributing a partner to Allah". In the Quran, shirk and the related word mushrikûn "those who commit shirk and plot against Islam" often clearly refers to the enemies of Islam (as in verse 9.1-15) but sometimes it also refers to erring Muslims.

Definition: Shirk is defined in various ways. Islamic commentators on the Quran have emphasized that pre-Islamic Arabic idolatry made a number of godlings (most memorably the three goddesses al-Manât, al-Lât and Uzzâ) equal associates of Allah (as the Quran discusses in the 53rd surat) and the word mushrikûn is often translated into English as "polytheists". Other forms of shirk include the worship of wealth and other material objects. This is pointed in the Quran in one of the stories of the Children of Israel: “… when they took a calf made of gold for worship…” (Quran 7:148-150). Another form of shirk is to revere a leader (religious or not) beyond limits, as mentioned in Quran (9:31). 

Theology: In a theological context one commits shirk by associating some lesser being with Allah. This sin is committed if one imagines that there is some other spirit than Allah whom it is suitable to worship. Many Islamic theologians extend the sense of worship to include praying to some other being to intercede with Allah on one's behalf, rather than taking one's case to Allah Himself. The limits of the concept of worship are quite elastic and theologians often describe excessive veneration of some artifact here on earth as shirk. Atheism is described as kufr and shirk because it denies both Allah Himself and the position of Allah as the unique creator and sustainer of the universe (tawhid ar-rububiyya, the unity of creation). In the same way, the act of shirk is extended to include such things as the notion that Allah possesses humanlike anthropomorphic qualities as well as acts of worship or piety whose inward goal is pride, caprice, or a desire for public admiration.

Categories of Major Shirk: Derived from the Quran and the prophetic tradition (Sunnah), there are three main categories of Shirk in Islam:

1. Shirk in Rubûbîyah (Lordship): This category of shirk refers to either the belief that others share Allah's Lordship over creation as His equal or near equal, or to the belief that there exists no Lord over creation at all.

*      Shirk by association: This is the shirk concerned with associating 'others' with Allah.

*      Shirk by negation: This is Shirk in Rubûbîyah (Lordship)

2. Shirk in “the names and attributes of Allah = al-Asma was-Sifat”: Shirk in this category includes both the common pagan practice of giving Allah the attributes of His creation as well as the act of giving created beings Allah's names and attributes.

*      Shirk by humanization: In this aspect of Shirk in “al-Asma was-Sifat”, Allah is given the form and qualities of human beings and animals. Due to man's superiority over animals, the human form is more commonly used by idolaters to represent Allah in creation. Consequently, the image of the Creator is often painted, moulded or carved in the shape of human beings possessing the physical features of those who worship them.

*      Shirk by deification: This form of Shirk in “al-Asma was-Sifat” relates to cases where created beings or things are given or claim Allah's names or His attributes. For example, it was the practice of the ancient Arabs to worship idols whose names were derived from the names of Allah. Their main three idols were: al-Lat taken from Allah's name al-Elah, al-Uzza taken from al-Aziz and al-Manat taken from al-Mannan. During the era of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) there was also a man in a region of Arabia called Yamamah, who claimed to be a prophet and took the name Rahman which, in Islam, belongs only to Allah.

3. Shirk in al-Ebadah (Worship): In this category of Shirk, acts of worship are directed to other than Allah and the reward for worship is sought from the creation instead of the Creator. As in the case of the previous categories, shirk in al-Ebadah has two main aspects:

*  Ash-Shirk al-Akbar (Major Shirk): This form of Shirk occurs when any act of worship is directed to other than Allah. It represents the most obvious form of idolatry which the prophets were specifically sent by Allah to call the masses of mankind away from this type of shirk. Examples of this shirk, asking forgivness, paradise and other things that only Allah can give from other than Allah.

*  Ash-Shirk al-Asghar (Minor Shirk): Hadith: “Mahmud ibn Lubayd reported: Allah's messenger said: ‘the thing I fear for you the most is ash-Shirk al-Asghar (minor shirk).’ The companions asked ‘Oh! Messenger of Allah! what is minor shirk?’ He replied ‘Ar-Riya (showing off), for verily Allah will say on the Day of Resurrection when people are receiving their rewards, 'Go to those for whom you were showing off in the material world and see if you can find any reward from them.’ ”

Secret Shirk: Hadith: “Mahmud ibn Lubayd also said, The Prophet came out and announced 'O people, beware of secret Shirk!' The people asked, 'O messenger of Allah, what is secret shirk?' He replied, 'when a man gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer because people are looking at him; that is secret shirk.’ ”

Swearing by other than Allah: This is considered minor shirk, unless the one who swore believes that whoever he swore by is equal to or worthy of Allah's worth.

Silsila or Silsilah: Spiritual lineage; chain of sheikhs: a branch of the spiritual path coming from Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW); chain of sheikhs in Naqshbandi Tariqa starting from Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), followed by Abu Bakr, the first Caliph and the others.

Sirat or As-Sirat (Arabic: الصراط), also called Sirat al-Jahim (English: The Bridge of Hell) is, in Islam, the hair-narrow bridge, which according to Muslim belief every person must pass on the Day of Judgement to enter Paradise. It is said that it is as thin as a hair and as sharp as a sword. Below this path are the fires of Hell, which burn the sinners to make them fall. People who performed acts of goodness in their lives are transported across the path in speeds according to their deeds leading them to the Hauzu'l-Kausar (the lake of abundance). Muslims who offer the obligatory prayers, recite at least 40 times a day the Surah Al-Fatiha, which is a supplication in which they ask Allah to guide them through the "straight path", this has been referred to by some scholars as a continuation (or precursor if you will) of the Bridge as-Sirat (The straight bridge).

Sufi and Sufism(Arabic: تصوّف - tasawwuf, Turkish: tasavvuf) is generally understood to be the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a Sufi (صُوفِيّ), though some adherents of the tradition reserve this term only for those practitioners who have attained the goals of the Sufi tradition. Another name used for the Sufi seeker is dervish. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but Allah." or "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine (Allah), purify one’s inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits (noble character traits of Allah or Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW))". The Sufi movement has spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, at first expressed through Arabic, then through Persian, Turkish, and a dozen other languages. Sufi orders, most of which are Sunni in doctrine, trace their origins from the Prophet of Islam, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), through his cousin Ali or his friend and father-in-law Abu Bakr.

Etymology: The lexical root of Sufi is variously traced to “suf = wool", referring either to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore, or possibly to “safâ = purity”. Some suggest the origin of the word Sufi is from “ashab as-suffa= Companions of the Porch”, who were a group of impoverished Muslims during the time of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) who spent much of their time on the veranda of the Prophet's mosque, devoted to prayer and eager to memorize each new increment of the Quran as it was revealed. Some people link the word “Sufi” with the Greek word sophia "wisdom".

While all Muslims believe that they are on the pathway to Allah and will become close to Allah in Paradise - after death and after the "Final Judgment" - Sufis also believe that it is possible to draw closer to Allah and to more fully embrace the Divine Presence in this life. The chief aim of all sufis is to seek the pleasing of Allah by working to restore within them the primordial state of fitra, described in the Quran. In this state nothing one does defies Allah, and all is undertaken by the single motivation of love of Allah. A secondary consequence of this is that the seeker may be led to abandon all notions of dualism or multiplicity, including a conception of an individual self, and to realize the Divine Unity.

Thus Sufism has been characterized as the science of the states of the lower self (the ego), and the way of purifying this lower self of its reprehensible traits, while adorning it instead with what is praiseworthy, whether or not this process of cleansing and purifying the heart is in time rewarded by esoteric knowledge of Allah. This can be conceived in terms of two basic types of law (fiqh), an outer law concerned with actions, and an inner law concerned with the human heart. The outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law - what is often referred to, a bit too broadly, as sharia. The inner law of Sufism consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.

To enter the way of Sufism, the seeker begins by finding a teacher, as the connection to the teacher is considered necessary for the growth of the pupil. The teacher, to be genuine, must have received the authorization to teach (ijazah) of another Master of the Way (Sheikh / Murshid), in an unbroken succession (silsilah) leading back to Sufism's origin with the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). It is the transmission of the divine light from the teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than of worldly knowledge transmitted from mouth to ear, that allows the adept to progress. In addition, the genuine teacher will be utterly strict in his adherence to the Divine Law.

Scholars and adherents of Sufism are unanimous in agreeing that Sufism cannot be learned through books. To reach the highest levels of success in Sufism typically requires that the disciple live with and serve the teacher for many, many years. For instance, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, considered as the founder of the Naqshbandi Order, served his first teacher, for 20 years. He subsequently served several other teachers for lengthy periods of time. The extreme arduousness of his spiritual preparation is illustrated by his service, as directed by his teacher, to the weak and needy members of his community in a state of complete humility and tolerance for many years. When he believed this mission to be concluded, his teacher next directed him to take care for animals, curing their sicknesses, cleaning their wounds, and assisting them in finding provision. After many years of this he was next instructed to spend many years in the care of dogs in a state of humility, and to ask them for support. As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the poor for 1001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction, and a further 1001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of completing that instruction.

History of Sufism: Sufism is the strict emulation of the way of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened. From the traditional Sufi point of view, the esoteric teachings of Sufism were transmitted from the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) to those who had the capacity to acquire the direct experiential gnosis of Allah, which was passed on from teacher to student through the centuries. Some of this transmission is summarized in texts, but most is not. Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarni. Hasan Basri and Sayid ibn al-Mussib are regarded as the first Sufis in the earliest generations of Islam. Rabia Basri was a Sufi known for her love and passion for Allah, expressed through her poetry. Bayazid Bastamiwas among the first theorists of Sufism; he concerned himself with fanā and baqā, the state of annihilating the self in the presence of the divine. All Sufi orders trace their chains of transmission (silsila) back to Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) via his cousin and son-in-law Ali and, as in the Naqshbandi order, via the first Islamic Caliph Abu Bakr. Sufi orders concerned themselves with the understanding of subtle knowledge (gnosis), education of the heart to purify it of baser instincts, the love of Allah, and approaching Allah through a well-described hierarchy of enduring spiritual stations (maqâmât) and more transient spiritual states (ahwâl). 

Suhba(in Turkish: Sohbet): In Sufism Sheikh's role is to guide and instruct his disciples on the Sufi path. This is often done by general lessons which are called “suhba”s and individual guidance. Again, in Sufism, “suhba” and “sermon” are different things. “Suhba”s are believed to be made by a wali (saint) from the mouth of whom (according to a hadith) Allah speaks and the words come to the tongue from the heart. But a sermon can be made by anyone. The information narrated in sermons are obtained from books or from other people and narrated after evaluation by the false ego (nafs).

Suhoor(Arabic: سحور, also called Sehri, Sahari, Seher and Sahur in other languages): (1) the time short before the sun rises; the period just before dawn; twilight; daybreak.  (2) Suhoor is an Islamic term referring to the meal consumed early in the morning by Muslims before fasting (sawm), in daylight hours during the Islamic month of Ramadan. The meal is eaten before the sun rises, and before the fajr or dawn prayer. Suhoor as the morning meal is matched by Iftar as the evening meal, during Ramadan, replacing the traditional three meals a day (breakfast, lunch and dinner), although in some places dinner is also consumed after Iftar later during the night. Being the only meal eaten by Muslims from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan, Suhoor typically tends to be heavy and is highly regarded by Islamic traditions to avoid crankiness or weakness caused by the fast.

Sunna / Sunna(h) / Sunna(t) سنة, plural سننSunan:

1.Literally means “way” or “trodden path” and therefore, the Sunna of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunna’ in Sunni Islam means those religious achievements that were instituted by the Islamic prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially obtained through consensus of companions of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), and further through generation-to-generation transmission.

     2. “the body of Islamic custom and practice based on Hadhrat Muhammad’s (SAW) words and deeds” or “the way that Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), the Prophet of Islam, lived his life”. 

Tafsir: Exegesis or commentary of the Quran

Tahaccud prayer: Non-obligatory prayer performed at midnight by desiring Muslims, usually by those in tariqa.

Tariqa / Tariqah / Tariqat / pl: Turuq (Arabic: طريقة‎): This word means “way, path, method” and refers to an Islamic religious order / dervish order / Sufi path. Tariqa is “the path taking the spirit breathed into the men by Allah from His Own Spirit back to Him. [Quran (15/29): “So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him”]. In Sufism, it is conceptually related to Haqīqa (the Truth), the ineffable ideal that is the pursuit of the tradition. Thus one starts with Islamic law (sharia), the exoteric or mundane practice of Islam and then is initiated onto the mystical (esoteric) path of a Tariqa. Through spiritual practices and guidance of a Tariqa, the aspirant seeks Haqiqa (ultimate truth).  

Tasawwuf (Islamic Sufism) or Tasavvuf:  Tasawwuf is generally understood to be the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a Sufi, though some adherents of the tradition reserve this term only for those practitioners who have attained the goals of the Sufi tradition. Another name used for the Sufi seeker is dervish. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but Allah." It is also defined as follows: "A science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one’s inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits."The Sufi movement has spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, at first expressed through Arabic, then through Persian, Turkish, and a dozen other languages. Sufi orders trace their origins from the Prophet of Islam, Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW), through his cousin Ali or his friend and father-in-law Abu Bakr

Tawhid: Doctrine of Oneness (of Allah); the concept of monotheism in Islam. It holds Allah is One (Wâhid) and Unique (Ahad).The Quran asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a Unique and Indivisible Being, Who is Independent of the entire creation. The indivisibility of Allah implies the indivisibility of Allah's sovereignty which, in turn, leads to the concept of a just, moral and coherent universe, rather than an existential and moral chaos. Similarly, the Quran rejects such ideas as the duality of Allah arguing that both good and evil generate from Allah's creative act and asserting that the evil forces have no power to create anything. The Quran also rejects the concept of Trinity as prevalent in Christianity. Allah in Islam is a universal god, rather than a local, tribal or parochial one. Allah is an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil.Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession. The first part of the Shahada (Witnessing) is the declaration of belief in the oneness of God. To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Quran. Muslims believe that the entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid. There is an uncompromising monotheism at the heart of the Islamic beliefs which distinguishes Islam from other major religions. Islamic intellectual history can be understood as a gradual unfolding of the manner in which successive generations of believers have understood the meaning and implications of professing Allah's Unity. Islamic scholars have different approaches toward understanding it. Theology, fiqh, philosophy, Sufism, even to some degree the natural sciences, all seek to explain at some level the principle of tawhid

Description of Tawhid in Quran:The Quran is the main source of understanding Oneness of Allah in Islam. Clearly the first step to understand Allah and his Oneness is to understand the Quran. All Muslim authorities maintain that a true understanding of Allah is impossible unless He introduces himself due to the fact that Allah is beyond the range of human vision and senses. Therefore Allah tells people who He is by speaking through the mouth of Prophet. According to this view the fundamental message of all of the prophets is "There is no god but Allah." The Quran asserts the existence of a single, absolute truth that transcends the world; a Unique Being who is independent of the creation; a Real Being indivisible into hypostatic entities or incarnated manifestation. According to the Quran:"Say: He is Allah the Only; Allah the Indivisible; He gives not birth, nor is He begotten, and He is, in Himself, not dependent on anything" (Sura 112: 1-4) "Thy Lord is the Absolute, the Lord of Mercy. If He will, He can remove you and can cause what He will to follow after you, even as He raised you from the seed of other folk." (Sura 6:133). The Quran also provides a monist image of Allah by describing the Reality as a Unified Whole, with Allah being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: “He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward; He is the Knower of everything” (Sura 57:3). Some Muslims have however vigorously criticized interpretations that would lead to a monist view of Allah for what they see as blurring the distinction between the creator and the creature, and its incompatibility with the radical monotheism of Islam. The Quranic passages Sura 34:20-24, Sura 35:40 and Sura 46:4 provide a basic understanding of assigning partners or equals to Allah a sin known in Islam as shirk. The verse 34:20-24 rejects the idea of duality of Allah  by arguing that both good and evil generate from Allah's creative act and that the evil forces have no creative power. The Quran relates the story of Abraham in order to provide an example of an intellectual quest for understanding Allah as the Cause of Causes: Related in verses 6:75-79, Abraham moves progressively from worshipping the stars, the moon, and the sun to acknowledging Allah as the sole cause of the heavenly phenomena. 

Teblig: To notify the people the orders of Allah given through Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW); and also to notify them the way leading their spirits to Allah; to invite people to tariqa, that is “the way taking people to Allah”

Umar ibn al-Khattāb (581-644), also known as “Umar the Great” or “Omar the Great”, was a Muslim convert from the Banu Adi clan of the Qurayshtribe, and a sahaba (righteous companion) of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW). He became the second Caliph (634 – 644) following the death of Abu Bakr, and is thus regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the Rashidun (four righteously guided Caliphs).

Ummah is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. In the context of Islam, the word ummah is used to mean the diaspora or "Community of the Believers" (ummat al-mu'minin) or followers of Islam and thus the whole Muslim world. The phrase Ummah Wahida in the Quran (the "One Community") refers to the entire Islamic world. The Quran (3:110) says: “You (Muslims) are the best nation brought out for Mankind, commanding what is righteous (ma’ruf = those things which are recognized as good) and forbidding what is wrong (munkar = those things which are recognized as bad)...”

Uwais al-Qarani or "Veysel Karani" (died 657 A.D.) was a Muslim resident of Qaran Village in Yemen who lived during the lifetime of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) but couldn’t see him. Qarani converted to Islam during Hadhrat Muhammad’s (SAW) lifetime, though they never met in person. Following the demise of Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) in 632 CE, Qarani did meet Hadrdth Umar and Hadhrat Ali. Not long after this meeting Qarani left Qaran for Kufa, in modern day Iraq. He fought for Ali against the army of Muawiyah and was martyred at the Battle of Siffin in 657.

Hadiths informing the highness (dignity and nobility) of Uways al-Qarani:

In a Hadith Qudsi recorded by the Companion Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (SAW) said speaking from his Lord: "Allah, Exalted and Mighty is He, loves of His creation the God-fearing, the pure in the heart, those who are hidden, and those who are innocent, whose face is dusty, whose hair is unkempt, whose stomach is empty, and who, if he asks permission to enter to the rulers, is not granted it, and if he were to ask for a gentle lady in marriage, he would be refused, and when he leaves the world it does not miss him, and if he goes out, his going out is not noticed, and if he falls sick, he is not attended to, and if he dies, he is not accompanied to his grave." They asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, how can we find someone like that?" He said, "Uwais al-Qarani is such a one." They asked him, "and who is Uwais al-Qarani?" He answered, "He is dark skinned, wide shoulder, and of average height. His complexion is close to the color of earth. His beard touches his chest. His eyes are always looking downwards to the place of prostration, and his right hand is on his left hand. He weeps about himself with such a flow of tears that his lips are swollen. He wears a woolen garment and is known to the people of the heavens. If he makes a promise in the Name of Allah, he keeps it. Under his left shoulder there is a white spot. When the Day of Resurrection comes and it is announced to the servants "Enter the Garden", it will be said to Uwais, 'Stop and intercede.' Allah, Mighty and Exalted is He, will then forgive them to the same number as are the people of Rabi'a and Mudhar. (These are the two tribes that Uwais belonged to). So, O Umar and O Ali, if you can find him, ask him to intercede for you. Then Allah will forgive you." Ten years passed by which they inquired about him, but without being able to find him. In the year 21 H/644 CE, Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Second Righteous Caliph after the Prophet's death, went to the Mountains of Abu Qubays (mountain overlooking Makka) and called in his loudest voice, "O people of the Yemen, is there anyone up there called Uwais?" An old sheikh (old man) with a long beard stood up and replied: "We do not know who this Uwais is about whom you ask, but my brother's son is called Uwais. But he is too unimportant to be asked about, and too poor and submissive that he should be raised up to your level. He is our camel-herder, and he has no standing amongst our people." But Umar again asked him if he knew Uwais. The man answered, "Why do you ask about him, O Commander of the Faithful, for by Allah there is not one of us who is more foolish and more needy than he." Umar then wept and said to him, "You are so, but not he. For I heard the Messenger of Allah say "Those who enter the Garden through Uwais, asking for forgiveness for them, are the people of the tribe of Rabi'a and Mudhar." Umar asked him where he could find him, and was told, "On the Mount of 'Arafat." Umar and Ali then went quickly to Arafat where they found Uwais praying under a tree with camels grazing around him. They approached him and greeted him, saying, "As-salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmut Allahi wa Barakatuh." Uwais cut his prayer short, and when he had finished it, returned their greeting. They asked him "Who are you?" He replied "A herdsman of camels and a hired workman for a tribe." They said "we do not ask you about your tending of animals, nor about your being a hired worker, but what is your name?” He answered "Abdullah (servant of Allah)” They said "All the people of the heavens and the earth are the servants of Allah, but what is the name in which your mother named you?" He said "O you two, what do you want from me?" They said "The Messenger of Allah once spoke to us about Uwais al-Qarani. He gave us a description of the bluish-black color of his eyes, and he told us that he has a white mark under his left shoulder. So please show us if you have this mark, for then it is you for whom we are searching." Uwais then bared his left shoulder, and they saw a white mark. They then embraced him and kissed him and said "We declare that you are Uwais al-Qarani, so ask for forgiveness for us and May Allah forgive you." He answered "I cannot even forgive myself, nor one of Adam's children. But there are on land and in the seas believing men and women, Muslim men and women, whose invocations to Allah are answered." They replied "Surely this is so." Then he said, "O you two, you know about me and I know about my state, but who are you?” Hadhrat Ali answered "This is the Commander of the Faithful (al-amir al-muminin), Umar ibn al-Khattab, and I am Ali ibn Abu Talib." Uwais stood up straight and said "As-salaamu alaikum ya 'amir al-muminin. And you, O Ali! May Allah repay you with goodness for this Community (Ummah)!" They said, "May Allah repay you for yourself and your goodness." Then Umar said to Uwais "Your place is here until I return to Madinah, and may Allah have mercy upon you. Then I will bring you help from my provision and some of my clothes. This has been the meeting place between you and me." But Uwais answered him "O Commander of the Faithful, there will be no other meeting place, in the knowledge of Allah, between you and me, but this one. So tell me what should I do with your provision and what should I do with your clothes? Do you not see that I am wearing a woolen gown and a woolen wrapper, so when do you see me tearing them? Or do you see that my sandals are worn out and torn? When do you see me out wearing them? Between your hand and mine there is a higher barrier which cannot be crossed by a weighty person, so leave these things, and Allah will have mercy upon you." When Umar heard these words, he struck the ground with his stick and shouted out at the top of his voice "O would that Umar had not been born by his mother, and that she had been sterile!" Then Umar returned to Al-Madinah, and Uwais herded his camels back to his tribe. Not long after this, Uwais left his work as a herdsman and went to Kufah where he continued in his bondsmandship until Allah, Glory be to Him took him back to Himself. When Umar ibn al-Khattab heard that Uwais wanted to go back to Kufah, he said tho him "Where do you want to go to?" Uwais said "to Kufah." Umar then said "Shall I write a letter for you to its Governor?" Uwais replied "I would rather be with the people who are near to my heart."

 In a sahih (genuine) hadith of Muslim, it is recorded that Umar said "I heard the Messenger of Allah say "Uwais ibn 'Amir will come with a number of the people of the tribe of Mudar from the region of Qaran as if he had a sickness on his skin. He had a mother to whom he was most perfectly devoted, and if he asked anything of Allah it would be granted to him. If you meet him, ask him to ask forgiveness for you."

It was said of the Companion 'Alqama ibn Marthid that he said "Asceticism is specially associated with eight people, one of whom is Uwais al-Qarani. His family thought that he was mad, and they built him a room near the door of their house. Days would pass by when they would not see him, and his food was what he took from plants and herbs of the earth which he would sell to buy food for himself.

Also the Companion Amar ibn Saif said "When a man once asked Uwais al-Qarani “How did you begin the morning and how did you finish the evening?" He answered “I began in the morning by loving Allah, and I finished the evening in praising Him. Do not ask about the state of a man who, when he wakes up in the morning thinks that he will not see the evening, or when he is alive in the evening thinks that he will not wake up in the morning. Death and its mentioning and remembering do not leave the believer any space for happiness.” For, as he then said, "In Allah's Eyes, Exalted is He, what a Muslim possesses does not gather any silver or gold, for one should only be doing what is permitted and avoiding what is forbidden, and whatever does not have leave a believer with a single friend. When we ask them to do what is permitted they insult us, and in that they are helped by the unbelievers and sinful people. By Allah they have thrown terrible things at me, but O Allah I will not leave them until I show them the right way." One of them said "A number of people had spoken to me about Uwais al-Qarani, so hearing that he was then living in Kufah, I went there to find him, for I had no other desire except to see him. I found him sitting by the shore of the Tigris, and I recognized him by the description that I had been given of him. A thin man looked at me, and I stretched out my hand to greet him, but he did not return my greeting. I felt discouraged but I asked him, "Are you Uwais". His clothes were poor and he seemed to be in a state of unwrapped isolation, for it was this state of his which led the ignorant people to say about him that he was mad and deranged. But I knew that his ascetic and surrendered state was that of the true faqir (poor), who does not listen to those who say that such a state is contrary to the Sunna. Such people are ignorant of the true Sunna of the Messenger of Allah which is to leave the material world and the business of creation, and to draw near to one's Lord; to leave all bonds which are other than to Allah, Exalted and Mighty is He." Haram ibn Hayyan continued his account of this meeting by saying, "Then I addressed him saying, 'May Allah have mercy upon you, O Uwais, and forgive you, How are you?' "Then my voice halted. For I could not speak my heart which was moved with deep gentleness towards him when I saw his state and that he had started weeping. I found myself also weeping. "Then Uwais said to me, 'May Allah greet you. How are you my brother, ibn Hayyan, and who showed you the way to me?" "I answered him, 'It was Allah." "He said, 'There is no God but Allah, praise be to our Lord. If it is the Wish of Allah, a thing is done. So this is Allah's Wish." I said, 'How did you know my name, and my father's name? For my name was Haram ibn Hayyan.' Uwais said “The Knower told me, for my soul knows your soul when my self talks to your self. For the believers know each other in their love for Allah, even if they never met; and when they come to our resting place, they know each other even if they come from somewhere far distant." I said “Tell me about the Messenger of Allah.” “Uwais said “I have never seen the Messenger of Allah face to face and I have never been in his presence, but I would give my life for him. But I do not like to talk about that.” “I said to Uwais “Recite me some verses of the Book of Allah, so that I may hear it from you and so that I may learn them by heart from you. For I know that I love you in Allah.” "Uwais took my hand, and said “I seek refuge in Allah, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from the accursed Satan.” Then he recited “We created not the heavens and the earth and what is between them for mere play.” (44:38). Then he sighed a deep sigh, and I looked at him with they eye of the Love, for he had become absent. A little while later he said to me, “O son of Hayyan, your father has died and soon you will die, going either to the Garden or the Fire. My brother and friend Umar ibn al-Khattab has died.” I said to him “May Allah forgive you, but Umar has not died." "Uwais said “Yes, and the people have announced his death, and so has Allah, Mighty and Exalted is He, and He has announced my own death. For you and I are both of the dead." "Then he prayed upon the Prophet and murmured some short invocations. Then he said “This is what I leave you, the Book of Allah and the Sunna of the Prophet and you should always remember death, and this should never ever leave your heart for a moment. And warn your people when you go back to them, and say to the whole Community “Do not forsake the people, for if you do, you will forsake your religion without being aware of it, and you will enter the Fire. So pray for me and yourself.” Then Uwais said to me “O Lord this is a claim, for he loves me in You, and he has visited me because of You, and permit me to see his face in the Garden, and make him enter the Home of Peace, and protect him in this world, as long as he is alive. Keep him from the material world (dunya) through the walking on the Path, and make him to be thankful for the blessings You give him, and give him goodness from me.” Then he said “As-salaamu alaikum wa Rahmutullahi wa Barakatuh, for I will not see you after this day. May Allah have mercy upon you, but I do not like to be known, and I love to be solitary, for I am in deep anxiety when I am with people. So do not ask about me, and do not call upon me, but know that you are in my heart even if I do not see you nor you see me. Mention me and pray for me, for I will mention you and pray for you, if Allah, Exalted is He, so wishes. So go away from here.” Haram ibn Hayyan said “I deeply wanted to walk with him for an hour, but he did not allow me anymore, so I left him and I started to weep, and he also wept. I kept watching him until he went into a road... After that I asked about him, and I called to him, but no one could tell me anything about him. But then, after a week or so had passed by, I saw him once or twice in my sleep. Uwais said “The Messenger of Allah died” but he did not say “The Messenger of Allah, sall-Allahu `Alayhi wa sallam,' although he said it about the Prophets before him. By this he meant that the grace of the Messenger of Allah is well known, and he is known for the perfection of his honor, and he does not need to be praised by people."

Some said that when night came, Uwais would say “This night is for prostrating”. Then he would prostrate until morning. And also when night came he would distribute the food in his house to the poor, and he would say "O Lord, if someone dies this night out of hunger, excuse me, and if someone dies naked, excuse me."

Abdullah ibn Salma, the Companion, said "We went to Azerbaijan in the company of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Uwais was with us. On our way back he became ill and we carried him, but he did not last long and he died. We went to bury him and found a grave that was already dug. Water was available and everything was ready to receive a dead body. We washed him, put him in a shroud, prayed over him, and then we left. Some of us said that we should go back and mark the grave so that we would be able to find it later. So we returned to the place, but there was no trace of the grave to be found." 

Uwaysi (Uwaysi Transmission of Spiritual Knowledge): Sayyidina Shah Bahauddin Naqshband al-Uwaysi al-Bukhari received the silent dhikr from the spiritual presence (ruhaniyya) of Khawaja Abdul Khaliq Ghujdawani. He did not meet with him physically because there were five sheikhs between them in the Golden Chain. Similarly Sayyidina Abul Hasan al-Kharaqani took spiritual guidance and initiation in the Naqshbandi Order from the spiritual presence of Bayazid Bistami. In this form of spiritual transmission, the spirits meet in the world which is called calam al-arwah (the world of spirits) whic is beyond calam al-ajsam (the material plane). Whoever takes knowledge through spirituality from a deceased Master (Sheikh) in the Naqshbandi Way (Tariqa) is called both Uwaisi. That spiritual connection is as powerful and effective as the physical connection. The sign of the Favor of Allah Almighty and Exalted on his servant is to authorize one of His saints to uplift that servant to the Divine Presence. That is why many saints who came in previous times were guided for those who came after through this spiritual (uwaysi) connection. It is known that many awliya (saints) have been under the guidance and training of prophets and other saints that lifted them up. For instance, Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdwani was raised up by Sayyidina al-Khidr, Sayyidina Uways al-Qarani, and the spiritual Presences of Sayyidina Ali and Sayyidina Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. Then Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq raised Shah Naqshband, who also received guidance from Sayyidina Uways al-Qarani, Sayyidina Ali, Sayyidina Abu Bakr and the Prophet. Sayyidina Jacfar as-Sadiq raised up Sayyidina Bayazid al-Bistami. Sayyidina Bayazid al-Bistami raised up Sayyidina Abul Hasan al-Kharaqani. 

Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wajud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the “Unity of Being” is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that 'there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (Allah)' or in other phrasing that the only truth within the universe is Allah, and that all things exist within Allah only. All of his creations emerge from `adim (عدم non-existence) to wujood (existence) out of his thought only. Hence the existence of Allah is the only truth (Haqq), and the concept of a separate created universe is a fallacy (Batil).

Ibn Arabi is most often characterized in Islamic texts as the originator of the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud; however, this expression is not found in his works. Although he frequently makes statements that approximate it, it cannot be claimed that "Oneness of Being" is a sufficient description of his ontology, since he affirms the "manyness of reality (haqq)" (manyness of the attributes of Allah) with equal vigor. In his view, wujud is the unknowable and inaccessible ground of everything that exists. Allah alone is true wujud, while all things dwell in nonexistence, so also wujud alone is nondelimited (mutlaq), while everything else is constrained, confined, and constricted. Wujud is the absolute, infinite, nondelimited reality of Allah, while all others remain relative, finite, and delimited. Since wujud is nondelimited, it is totally different from everything else. Whatever exists and can be known or grasped is delimitation and definition, a constriction of the unlimited, a finite object accessible to a finite subject. In the same way, wujud's self-consciousness is nondelimited, while every other consciousness is constrained and confined. But we need to be careful in asserting wujud's nondelimitation. This must not be understood to mean that wujud is different and only different from every sort of delimitation. The Sheikh is quick to point out that wujud's nondelimitation demands that it be able to assume every sort of delimitation. If wujud could not become delimited, it would be limited by its own nondelimitation. Thus "He possesses nondelimitation in delimitation" Or, "Allah possesses nondelimited wujud, but no delimitation prevents delimitation. Rather, He possesses all delimitations, so He is nondelimited delimitation, since no single delimitation rather than other rules over Him.... Hence nothing is to be attributed to Him in preference to anything else”. Wujud must have the power of assuming every sort of delimitation on pain of being limited by those delimitations that it cannot assume. At the same time, it transcends the forms by which it becomes delimited and remains untouched by their constraints.

Only He who possesses Being in Himself (wujud dhâtî) and whose Being is His very essence (wujuduhu 'ayn dhâtihi), merits the name of Being. Only Allah can be like that. On the highest level, wujud is the absolute and nondelimited reality of Allah, the "Necessary Being" (wājib al-wujūd) that cannot exist. In this sense, wujud designates the Essence of Allah or of the Real (dhāt al-haqq), the only reality that is real in every respect. On lower levels, wujud is the underlying substance of “everything other than Allah” (mâ siwâ Allah) - which is how Ibn Arabi and others define the "cosmos" or "universe" (al-'âlam). Hence, in a secondary meaning, the term wujud is used as shorthand to refer to the whole cosmos, to everything that exists. It can also be employed to refer to the existence of each and every thing that is found in the universe.

Allah's 'names' (asma') or 'attributes' (sifat), on the other hand, are the relationships which can be discerned between the Essence and the cosmos. They are known to Allah because he knows every object of knowledge, but they are not existent entities or ontological qualities, for this would imply plurality in the godhead.

For the creatures, “being” is not part of their essence. So a creature does not own its “being”, that it can never be independent in itself. In this sense, the created does not deserve the attribution of “being”. Only Allah is “Being”, and all the rest is in reality a possibility (imkân), a relative, possible non-existence.

Walaya / walayat / walayah:Sanctity; friendship (with Allah); the state or position of being wali.

Wali or “wali of Allah = waliullah” (English: Saint. Arabic ولي, plural Awliya' أولياء), is an Arabic word, meaning trusted one, generally denoting “friend of Allah”. It should not be confused with the word Wâli (Arabic: والي) which is an administrative title that was used in the Muslim Empire and still used nowadays in some Muslim countries such as in Turkey. The word wali is short for waliullah or friend of Allah. Belief in the awliya is an agreed upon article of faith in Sunni Islam having been mentioned in the earliest creeds to the most recent.

Yunus Emre (1240?–1321?) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic. He has exercised immense influence on Turkish literature, from his own day until the present. Because Yunus Emre is, after Ahmet Yesevi and Sultan Veled, one of the first known Turkish poets to have composed works in the spoken Turkish of his own age and region rather than in Persian or Arabic, his diction remains very close to the popular speech of his contemporaries in Central and Western Anatolia. This is also, it should be noted, the language of a number of anonymous folk-poets, folk-songs, fairy tales, riddles (tekerlemeler), and proverbs.

Following the Mongolian invasion of Anatolia, Islamic mystic literature thrived in Anatolia, and Yunus Emre became one of its most distinguished poets. Poems of Yunus Emre - despite being fairly simple on the surface - evidence his skill in describing quite abstruse mystical concepts in a clear way. He remains a popular figure in a number of countries, stretching from Azerbaijan to the Balkans, with seven different and widely dispersed localities disputing the privilege of having his tomb within their boundaries.

His poems, written in the tradition of Anatolian folk poetry, mainly concern divine love as well as human destiny:

Your love has wrested me away from me,

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

Day and night I burn, gripped by agony,

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

I find no great joy being alive,

If I cease to exist, I would not grieve,

The only solace I have is your love,

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

Lover yearn for you, but your love slays them,

At the bottom of the sea it lays them,

It has God's images - it displays them,

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

Even if, at the end they make me die

And scatter my ashes up to the sky,

My pit would break into this outcry:

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

Let me drink the wine of love sip by sip,

Like Mecnun, live in the hills in hardship,

Day and night, care for you holds me in its grip,

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

'Yunus Emre the mystic' is my name,

Each passing day fans and rouses my flame,

What I desire in both worlds is the same:

You're the one I need; you're the one I crave

One constant theme in Yunus' poetry is Love, that of Allah for man and, therefore, of man for Allah. Yunus' love is the most powerful of everything, it is for the Creator of the universe but it is also the Creator, it is fierce and burning, consuming Yunus' mere existence. Yunus is like Mecnun ["the mad man of Love" who suffered, appear to have gone mad, and died just for the love of Leyla]. Yunus wants to be drunk or mad, as Mecnun, for his Love which wounds him terribly. For Yunus external forms of religion are not important and reward and punishment are not of concern; he only cares for Allah, yearns for of his Love. The world is temporary and even when he dies, even when he is killed like the martyr of love Hallaj (Yunus refers to him in various other pieces of poetry), whatever is left of him will be yearning for Allah. Yunus can argue with Allah that His Love is killing people, making them suffer enormously, he seems to complain of his treatment, but his love is so great that he can not help yearning for Him. He believes that he existed with Allah before there was existence. Of course, his real being (his esence) is no different than Allah:

I was a star for a long time;
in the skies the angels were desirous [of me].
The all-compelling God commanded;
I was there then.

Before I was in this form,
when my name was not Yunus,
I was He, He was I,
I was with the one who offered this love.

Yunus is hinting at a common Sufi theme of the existence of the Saints during the primordial time. Yunus is a perfect-man himself who was with the Creator before the Creation. He shared the divine knowledge with Allah. This idea is revealed more clearly in the following verses:

Before the created universe came here,
Before the skies were filled with angels,
Before this realm had a foundation,
I was with the creator of the Domain.

He is not content to make this shocking statement; he calls everyone else to accept it also:

If you don't identify Man status in God,
All your learning is of no use at all.

Yunus in fact refers to the idea of "wahdat al-wujud", unity of Being, which is a common theme on Sufi mysticism. He adheres to most of the common, dominant ideas of Sufism, as can clearly be seen from these pieces of poetry and his other works. What is different and most striking in Yunus is his use of the simple Turkish of his time - which could still be understood and appreciated quite easily by a modern Turkish speaker, and his outstanding humanism. 

Yusuf Hamdani: Hadrat Abu Yaqub Yusuf Hamdani (d. 1140) is the first of the group of Central Asian Sufi teachers known simply as Khawajagan (the Masters) of the Naqshbandi order. He began his religious career with the cultivation of the religious sciences, becoming both a respected scholar of hadith and fiqh and a popular preacher in Baghdad. Later he abandoned these pursuits, adopting an intensely ascetic way of life and travelled east, first settling in Herat and later in Merv, where his tomb is still reputed to exist. He named four khalifas or successors, a pattern that repeated itself for several succeeding generations of the Khawajagan, including Ahmed Yesevi and Khawaja Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani, the next link in the Naqshbandi silsila.

Zuhurat:Unforseen instinctive and nonintentional acts or events caused, directed and controlled by the sheiks (spiritual masters,